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Robbins & Lawrence Armory, 196 Main Street, Windsor, Windsor County, VT

Robbins & Lawrence Armory, 196 Main Street, Windsor, Windsor County, VT



Significance: The period of significance for the private Armory is 1846-1856. The factory was constructed in 1846 and was the site of innovation and invention in the manufacture of firearms and machine tools under the ownership of Samuel Robbins and Richard Lawrence until the company bankruptcy in 1856. The Armory is significant in the areas of architecture, engineering and industry. The architecture is an excellent example of antebellum New England multi-story, brick, factory design that incorporated fire-resistant construction techniques, as well as a decorative cupola and rifle weathervane. The engineering is a good example of the design of a mid-century waterpower system, with a breast-type waterwheel, that was typical for mill seats in New England prior to the introduction of stationary steam engines. The Armory was a pioneer in the development of interchangeable parts for the manufacture of firearms for the federal government. The in situ
remains of the waterwheel pit, millwork and headrace are a case study of a waterpower system of a mid-nineteenth century factory in New England. Documentary research and archeological evidence from this industrial site adds to our understanding of similar factories and waterpower systems constructed at this time.
Unprocessed Field note material exists for this structure: N1151
Survey number: HAER VT-39
Building/structure dates: 1846-1856 Initial Construction
Building/structure dates: 1865-1870 Initial Construction
Building/structure dates: 1870-1886 Initial Construction
Building/structure dates: 1902- ca. 1935 Initial Construction
Building/structure dates: ca. 1935- 1966 Initial Construction
Building/structure dates: 1966 Initial Construction



Historic American Engineering Record, creator
Robbins & Lawrence Company
Windsor Manufacturing Company
Jones, Lamson & Company
Windsor Electric Light Company
Central Vermont Public Service Company
American Precision Museum
Robbins, Samuel E.
Lawrence, Ricard S.
Kendall, Nicanor
Battison, Edwin A.
Marston, Christopher H, project manager
Johnson, John P, historian
Lawless, Ann, sponsor
Carpenito, Jessica, delineator
Osorio, German, delineator
Sardadi, Arvi, delineator
Wickham, Russell C, delineator
Gorohkov, Pavel, delineator
Lowe, Jet, photographer


Windsor (Vt.)43.47477, -72.38953
Google Map of 43.4747692, -72.3895331


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