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Indian loving streamlet near the Chattahoochee, Columbus, Ga

On the Chattahoochee near Loving Leaf, with Eddie, Frank and Joe

Georgia.

Columbus, Ga.

Plan of fortifications at Columbus, Ga.

Perspective map of Columbus, Ga., county seat [of Muscogee Cou]nty, 188[6].

Group of workers in Meritas Mill, Columbus, Ga. Could not get the youngest. I went through the mill in the morning and saw some very young workers, and a number of little dinner-toters who were helping. A school teacher told me that the parents count on the children learning to work this way, during the noon, and encourage the people to work at that time, although the nooning is only 30 minutes. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Night Work! Group of boys, all working in Massey Hosiery Mills, Columbus, Ga. Most of them had been working all day and had an hour for supper and were going back into the mill (6:00 P.M.) to work until 8 P.M. as they have done several nights this week and for some time past. I found 4 ten year olds and several of 11 and 12 working in the evenin[g] after supper and they said it was a regular thing. Ferrell [i.e., Terrell?] Butler, 10 yrs old, 1114 21st St., been working off and on 1 yr. Marvin Williams, 11 yrs. old been working 1 yr. part of the time at night. Lawrence Webb, 12 yrs. Old. Jack Wright, 15[?] yrs. working [3] yrs., co]uldn't write his ow[n] name. Are working nights now, as well as the following who were not in these photos. Gordon Stone, 10 yrs. old. Rufus Matthews, 10 yrs. old, works before and after school and nights some. Lives 1171 [27th?] Street, and Harry McElroy, 10 yrs. old night [...] Location: Columbus, Georgia.

[Willie Cherry, a 6 year old helper in Massey Hosiery Mill, Columbus, Ga. She has been going to school and helping her step-brother, Lawrence Webb, regularly after school. Her mother has recently stopped her working as it hurt her eyes. Lawrence, 12 years old, has been working nights there. Live 1124 22d.] Location: [Columbus, Georgia]

George Clendenon, 2807 Waverly Street, Columbus, Ga. Mother said he has just reached 11 years, (last month) and he has been working, off and on, for over a year at Massey Hosiery Mill. He makes $5.50 a week now. Father works in mill. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Free Kindergarten (in Girard, Ala.) run by the Eagle and Phoenix Mills, Columbus, Ga. Has been closed over a year. The mill owners get a deal of free newspaper advertising about their wonderful Welfare Work, but it petered out this way. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Roy Young, said 10 years old. Works with brother Willis, 12 years old in Massey Hosiery Mills. Roy has worked some nights, once until 10 P.M. and he fell asleep in school next day. Haywood Tidd, smallest boy, is only 5 [?] years old, according to school record. He helps his brother regularly in Massey Mill, all day. Lives 1054 R.R. Street, Columbus, Ga. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

"Dinner-Toters" waiting for the gate to open. This is carried on more in Columbus than in any other city I know, and by smaller children. (See photos.) Many of them are paid by the week for doing it, and carry, sometimes, ten or more a day. They go around in the mill, often help tend to machines, which often run at noon, and so learn the work. A teacher told me the mothers expect the children to learn this way, long before they are of proper age. (See also Vaughn's Georgia Report, April, 1913.) Eagle and Pho[e]nix Mill. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Group of workers in Perkins Hosiery Mill, Columbus, Ga. Not many very young children here. Dozens of them in the adjoining mill. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Another "Dependent Father." He is so recorded in the Ordinary's office where he made application for his mino[r] children to work. He has three children in the mill. When he married the present wife, she brought with her seven children, three of which are in the mill. The mother and father are both in mill work. He works part of the time. Lyell, Columbian and Swift Mills, Columbus, Ga. Lyell, Columbus & Swift Mills. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Group of workers in Meritas Mill, Columbus, Ga. Could not get the youngest. I went through the mill in the morning and saw some very young workers, and a number of little dinner-toters who were helping. A school teacher told me that the parents count on the children learning to work this way, during the noon, and encourage the people to work at that time, although the nooning is only 30 minutes. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Guy Haywood, 10 years old, helps his brother. Harvey doff[s] in Columbus (Ga.) Mill. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

A dinner Toter who claims to have regular job in Eagle Mill, Columbus, Ga. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Minnie Lee Partain, a young helper in Columbus, (Ga.) Manufacturing Co. 2950 2nd Avenue. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Gladys Goodrum, 116 Short Street, Columbus, Ga. Said 12 years old. Seen working nearly one year as looper in Massey Hosiery Mill. Makes $9. a week sometimes. Location: Columbus, Gerogia.

Minnie Lee Partain, a young helper in Columbus (Ga.) Manufacturing Company. 2950 2nd Avenue. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

I found some young helpers like his one in the Muscogee Mills, Columbus, Ga. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Another "Dependent Father". He is so recorded in the Ordinary's office where he made application for his minor children to work. He has three children in the mill. When he married the present wife, she brought with her seven children, three of which are in the mill. The mother and father are both in mill work. He works part of the time. Lyell, Columbus and Swift Mills. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Photo of Ordinary's Certificate for Bronson Beers, 9 years old, (and therefore illegal). The Deputy Clerk told me "That was likely a clerical error." but I found five of these "errors" issued to children under 10 years old, one for child aged 8. (The latter was later marked 'Void' but none of the rest were.[)] Rolly's teacher told me the family had moved, but that the boy was a mere baby with a lisp. The issuing of the certificates is very unbusinesslike. (See Vaughn's report, Georgia, 1913.) The Ordinary said, "I'm a practical Man! The cotton mill people are the poorest paid workers in the country. They have to put their children into the mills." Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Group of workers in Moritas Mill, Columbus, Ga. Could not get the youngest. I went through the mill in the morning and saw some very young workers, and a number of little dinner toters who were helping. A school teacher told me that the parents count on the children learning to work this way, during the noon and encourage the people to work at that time, although the nooning is only 30 minutes. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Charley Herring, 9 year old Helper in Ga. Hosiery Mill, Columbus Ga. Lives 219 Broad Street, Girard, Ala. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Free Kindergarten (in Girards Ala.) run by the Eagle and Pho[e]nix Mills, Columbus, [Ga.] Has been closed over a year. The mill owners get a deal of free newspaper advertising about their wonderful Welfare Work, but it petered out this way. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Photo of Ordinary's Certificate, Columbus, Ga. giving permit to Rolly Strickland, 9 years old, (and therefore illegal). The Deputy Clerk told me "That was likely a clerical error," but I found five of these "errors" issued to children under 10 years old., one for a child aged 8. (The latter was later marked 'Void' but [none] of the rest were.) Rolly's teacher told me the family had moved but that the boy was a mere baby with a lisp. The issuing of the certificate is very unbusinesslike. (See Vaughn's Report, Georgia, 1913.) The Ordinary said, "I'm a practical Man! The cotton mill people are the poorest paid workers in the country. They have to put their children into the mills." The Associated Charities Records show five older children working in the mill. One of 25 years, one of 23, one of 18, 16, 11. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Charley Herring, 9 year old Helper in Ga. Hosiery Mill, Columbus Ga. Lives 219 Broad Street, Girard, Ala. Location: Columbus, Georgia

Two young workers in Spinning Room of Columbus Mill. Youngest is Lonny[?] Clark. Been working there over a year. Dewey Clark, been working there two y[ea]rs. Father is boss of Spool Room. Lonny[?] makes about $4. a week. Dewey a week, they say. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Bruce Tillery, 10 years old. Swept in Eagle Mill, Columbus, Ga. last summer and going to work again next week. Been toting 13 dinners a day. Mother gets most of the money. Several brothers in the mill. 155 2nd Ave. Girard, Ala. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Group of workers in Massey Hosiery Mill, Columbus, Ga. See other photos and labels. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

A young mill worker, Columbus, Ga., who in six months' time worked in 4 or 5 mills--getting the roving habit early. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Elmer Skinner, 10 yrs. old. Turner in Massey Hosiery Mill, Columbus, Ga. Been working there four months. Works all day. No school. Does not work nights. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Willie Cherry, a 6 year old helper in Massey Hosiery Mill, Columbus, Ga. She has been going to school and helping her step-brother, Lawrence Webb, regularly after school. Her mother has recently stopped her working as it hurt her eyes. Lawrence, 12 years old, has been working nights there. Live 1124 22d. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

The Elms, 1846 Buena Vista Rd., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Alexander-McGehee-Woodall House, 16th St. 2nd Ave., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

St. Elmo, Talbottan Ave. at 29 th St., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

St. Elmo, Talbottan Ave. at 29 th St., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Dr. Baird House, Wynnton Road at Lockwood St., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

The Elms, 1846 Buena Vista Rd., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Modern House, Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

George Foster Peabody House, 2nd Ave. & 15th St. S.W. corner, Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Hoxey-Cargill-DeLauney House, 13th & 3rd Ave., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

St. Elmo, Talbottan Ave. at 29 th St., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

902 Broadway, Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Hoxey-Cargill-DeLauney House, 13th & 3rd Ave., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Mrs. C.M. Wolfolk House, Wynnton Road at Monroe St., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Judge Crawford House, 209 13th St., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

George Foster Peabody House, 2nd Ave. & 15th St. S.W. corner, Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Cooper House, Wynnton Rd. & Cooper Ave., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Mott House, Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Kyle (Swift) Mansion, 12th & 3rd., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Dr. Baird House, Wynnton Road at Lockwood St., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

George Foster Peabody House, 2nd Ave. & 15th St. S.W. corner, Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

St. Elmo, Talbottan Ave. at 29 th St., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Pease House, 908 Broad St. at 9th., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Dr. Baird House, Wynnton Road at Lockwood St., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Cooper House, Wynnton Rd. & Cooper Ave., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Mott House, Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Dr. Baird House, Wynnton Road at Lockwood St., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Alexander-McGehee-Woodall House, 16th St. 2nd Ave., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Mrs. C.M. Wolfolk House, Wynnton Road at Monroe St., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Pease House, 908 Broad St. at 9th., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

St. Elmo, Talbottan Ave. at 29 th St., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

St. Elmo, [pigeonier], Talbottan Ave. at 29 th St., Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia

Construction workers on porch of local boarding house on highway near Fort Benning, Columbus, Georgia. They pay six dollars a week, several in a room. They are employed on Belair Construction job building defense housing project

Columbus, Georgia

New sign in front of trailer park, and Itinerant photographer's trailer on highway near Fort Benning, Columbus, Georgia. Mr. W.T. Mullis owns property and grocery store and rents trailer space for two dollars a week to construction workers and Army men

Barbecue stand near Fort Benning, Columbus, Georgia

Defense housing project, Newton D. Baker Village, under authority of housing commission of Columbus, Georgia. Construction delayed on account of heavy rains

Fortune teller's sign and trailer near trailer camps where Army men and construction workers live on highway near Fort Benning, Columbus, Georgia

Columbus, Georgia. Metal shelters and tents of Army men and construction workers in backyard of W.T. Mullis, who owns home and property and has grocery store on main highway about three miles from Fort Benning. For the shelters they pay ten dollars a month. For trailer or tent space two dollars a week. Mrs. R.M. Davis, whose husband is a First Sergeant at Fort Benning, now occupying metal shelter, used to live in hallway space in local home nearby and paid twenty dollars a month and had to furnish own bed. Her neighbor said "I hope these real estate men and people in Columbus who are charging so much and stealing from the poor people have to sit in their empty homes and shacks and starve when the defense program is over and finished."

Shoeshine boy. Columbus, Georgia

Pawnshop. Columbus, Georgia

Trunks and boots in front of store window on main street. Columbus, Georgia

Defense housing project, Newton D. Baker Village, under authority of housing commission of Columbus, Georgia. Construction delayed on account of heavy rains

New homes of Army men on Milstead Avenue about five miles out of Columbus, Georgia near Fort Benning. They were finished in September

Negro soldiers. Columbus, Georgia

Defense housing project, Newton D. Baker Village, under authority of housing commission of Columbus, Georgia. Construction delayed on account of heavy rains

Beggar. Columbus, Georgia. He worked for many years the steel mills of Pittsburgh and Aliquippa

Children looking out of trailer window. Trailer where C.E. Childre and family live in highway about three miles from Fort Benning. He is an auto mechanic and came up to Columbus, Georgia two weeks ago from Albany, Georgia and now works at Columbus Motor Company. They couldn't find any other place to live so had to get a trailer. They pay two dollars a week for space in W.T. Mullis' backyard. Never lived in a trailer before, don't like it, difficult with children and wet weather

Bargain store on main street in Columbus, Georgia

New lunchroom across from construction job on the Newton D. Baker Village, defense housing project near Fort Benning, Columbus, Georgia

Men on car by tents. Construction workers in front of tents. Names: William Allen Jones, Fort Benning, Paul Knight, Fort Benning, J.F. Goza, C.D. Brownlee and B.I. Juhan. For space only in W.T. Mullis' backyard they pay two dollars a week. Two of them are now working at Fort Benning and others the Williams Construction Company, building foundations for new barracks, got laid off couple of weeks ago for indefinite time. They all came from Stone Mountain, Atlanta, Georgia, where they worked on WPA (Work Projects Administration). Some have been here one month. One said "There's something crooked in this here job--some men have worked every day seven days a week and others get no work at all. It's a dirty shame and the government ought to know about these conditions and see what goes on. It's awful bad."

Defense housing project, Newton D. Baker Village, under authority of housing commission of Columbus, Georgia. Construction delayed on account of heavy rains

Newton D. Baker Village, new defense housing project under construction by the housing authority of Columbus, Georgia. Near Fort Benning

Army men's new homes in Pine Woods on outskirts of Columbus, Georgia, near Fort Benning

Metal shelters, tents, trailers of construction workers and Army families. Metal shelters rent for ten dollars a month, and trailer space is two dollars a week. Near Fort Benning, Columbus, Georgia

Pawn shop with trunks and boots displayed on main street in Columbus, Georgia

Soldiers talking on street corner. Columbus, Georgia

Trailer and car belonging to Paul Knight, construction worker at Fort Benning building new barracks. He pays two dollars for trailer space (only) in W.T. Willis' backyard, is from Stone Mountain, Atlanta, Georgia. He said the bad roads were one of the worst problems around there and agreed that things generally were bad and the government had better do something about it soon

Newton D. Baker Village, a new defense housing project under the housing authority of Columbus, Georgia. Near Fort Benning

Water trough and Y.M.C.A. (Young Mens Christian Association) welcome sign in square in center of town. Columbus, Georgia

Cartoon taken from front page of Columbus, Georgia newspaper (Free Press), Sunday, December 15, 1940, indicating boomtown and prosperity because of defense construction around Fort Benning

Santa Claus and cannons in square in center of town. Columbus, Georgia

Soldiers from Fort Benning on a street in Columbus, Georgia

Sergeant from Fort Benning getting his son's hair cut at a barber shop in Columbus, Georgia

Georgia photographs - Farm Security Administration / Office of War Information Photograph.

On a main street in Columbus, Georgia

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