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[Chapter opening with illustration of man heating and hammering iron bar aligned in north-south orientation to magnetize it, decorated initial H and two cherubs, and surrounding text]

A card to the freeholders and freemen of this City and County from Messrs Axe and Hammer, and a number of the respectable body of leather aprons, give their compliments to their old friends who have not yet joined them; and beg they will be stan

To be sold to the best bidder / E. T., invt. [E. Topham].

Steam hammer

[Sculpture of man with a hammer leaning on a gear]

Nasmyth's patent steam hammer, copied by permission of the inventor from the machine in the great exhibition

[Two railroad construction workers hammer track as third construction worker watches]

Breaking that "backbone"

[Detail of "Progress of Civilization" east pediment of the Senate wing, U.S. Capitol]

[Coupon made for Merchants Life Insurance Co. of New York City]

[Father with hammer; mother and daughter on front porch; boy running away]

First steam fire engine, and trip hammer

[Cartoon of Speaker of the House Thomas Brackett Reed, with huge sledge hammer, breaking up the broadblocks of the disappearing Quorum and dilatory motion]

Chained!! / Keppler.

Under the hammer

[Egyptian hieroglyphics mural in Evolution of the Book series, by John W. Alexander. Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C.]

Apostle Islands, L[ake] S[uperior], Trip Hammer

Crippled jewelry worker

The great Arm & Hammer brand soda. Church & Co., New York

Cattle on the Lou Hammer ranch near Wood River, Hall County, Nebraska

Cattle on the Lou Hammer Ranch near Wood River, Hall County, Nebraska

Cattle and hogs on the Lou Hammer Ranch near Wood River, Hall County, Nebraska

Cattle on the Lou Hammer ranch near Wood River, Hall County, Nebraska

Drilling cooper ore one mile underground the Wilson Mine, Metcalf, Arizona

Driving cattle on the Lou Hammer Ranch near Wood River, Hall County, Nebraska

Driving cattle on the Lou Hammer Ranch near Wood River, Hall County, Nebraska

Livestock on the Lou Hammer Ranch near Wood River, Hall County, Nebraska

Cattle on the Lou Hammer Ranch near Wood River, Hall County, Nebraska

Two cowboys on the Lou Hammer Ranch near Wood River, Hall County, Nebraska

Driving cattle on the Lou Hammer Ranch near Wood River, Hall County, Nebraska

Cattle and hogs on the Lou Hammer Ranch near Wood River, Hall County, Nebraska

Cattle and hogs on the Lou Hammer Ranch near Wood River, Hall County, Nebraska

Cattle on the Lou Hammer ranch near Wood River, Hall County, Nebraska

Steam hammer, Westinghouse works /

Welding the big ring /

Union labor. Cohn, Frank & Co. makers of the "Fit Well" clothing, Buffalo, N.Y.

Pneumatic steam hammer and forges, blacksmith shop at mines, Scranton, Pa.

HAMMER, WILLIAM. HONORABLE

Adjusting film. Show will continue in a few minutes

A jolly cobbler

Construction men at work in great steel frame of Metropolitan Tower, looking toward East River, N.Y.C.

The village blacksmith

Driving the last spike. C.M. & P.S.R.R.

Castles in the air

C.J. Edwards, J.C. Eberhardt, Wm. Hammer, R.J. Collier

Gillis, hammer

Lest We Forget [William J. Hammer, Aeronautical Society Decennial Celebration, December 1913]

"Decoration Day. No. 1618"

O.R. Benson (16 lb. hammer)

Der deutsche Schmied, ein vaterländisches Spiel ... / Louis Oppenheim.

La Touche sneezed violently as Popineau raised his hammer

Arbeit, der Schutz gegen Anarchie! / Siegm. v. Suchodolski.

Wm. C. Hammer, N.C.

Wm. C. Hammer, N.C.

L. E. Brown to W. C. Hammer, March 3, 1922

[Steam hammer, 150,000 lbs.]

A true house that Jack built

Winners! Winners of the Navy Day essay contest, conducted under the auspices of the Indiana Navy Committee and Daughters of the American Revolution, called upon Secretary of the Navy Wilbur today with the National Chairman for Navy Day, Mr. Walter Bruce Bow. The winners Miss Martha M. Thompson of Warren, Indiana and Robert D. Hammer of Indianapolis were given a trip to Washington as a reward for standing first. In the group left to right, are: Secretary Wilbur, Miss Thompson, Mr. Hamner and Admiral Charles F. Hughes

American Photoengravers Association convention. Hammer Dry Plate & Film Co. exhibit II

American Photoengravers Association convention. Hammer Dry Plate & Film Co. exhibit I

Homemade pile driver. Men on right run violently backward hoisting hammer on left, then slack off and repeat, thus driving pile to form current diversion. National park area near Winona, Indiana

Hammer used for driving casing, near Winton, Minnesota

President organizes $4,000,000,000 pump priming campaign. Washington, D.C., April 11. President Roosevelt met with his Relief and Congressional Aides today to the personal command of a new administration fight to check business recession with a $4,000,000,000 pump priming campaign. The president subordinated all other White House business to efforts to hammer his lending and spending program into shape as a major New Deal offensive against recession and unemployment, left to right: Director of the Budget Daniel Bell, Sen. James F. Byrnes, SC. Sen. Carter Glass of Va., Majority Leader of the House Sen. Sam Rayburn of Tex., Sen Kenneth McKeller of Tenn., Sec. of Treasury Henry Morenthau, and in the rear, Rep. Edward Johnson, of Colo., April 11, 1938

Woman hammering a nail into a board with spectators looking on

Working with a small steam drop hammer at the blacksmith shop in the Santa Fe R.R. shops, Topeka, Kansas

Hammer Song

Hammering out a draw bar on the steam drop hammer in the blacksmith shop, Santa Fe R.R. shops, Albuquerque, N[ew] Mex[ico)

[Construction worker with pneumatic hammer cutting into portion of dam wall]

Using a 2000 pound steam hammer on jar rein for drilling equipment. Keystone Drilling Company, Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania

Airplane seat production. Airplane pilot seats, manufactured in a large Midwest rubber company now converted to production of many necessities, demands hundreds of rivets in each section of seat construction. Here a workman is cold pressing rivets into a back tie plate with a specially designed air hammer

A blow for democracy. A heavy steam hammer at Navy yard is used in the forging of hot metal into a turnbuckle for one of the Uncle Sam's new ships

Using 2000 pound steam hammer on jar rein for drilling equipment. Keystone Drilling Company, Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania

Tank armor production. Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation. Farrell, Pennsylvania. Cutting tools for planers in an armor plate mill are forged from high speed steel on the steam hammer of a big Eastern mill producing tank armor

Shipbuilding (Norfolk Navy Yard). Manpower for defense is the specialty of the worker with the sledge hammer, about to pound a ship's plate. The sledge hammer is still an important tool in the production of Uncle Sam's new battle fleet

Using 2000 pound steam hammer on jar rein for drilling equipment. Keystone Drilling Company, Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania

This plaque, bearing a design showing a plow, anchor and steam hammer, symbolizing the agriculture, commerce and manufacturing of the east, is being disposed of as scrap to aid the war effort. The Union Pacific Railroad has notified the Industrial Salvage Section of the War Production Board (WPB) Bureau of Industrial Conservation. It was erected on the road's Missouri River Bridge in 1888. The weight of the plaque is estimated at 1000 pounds of bronze and steel, including frame supports. It is five feet high, six feet wide and four inches thick

Forged steel hook. A New York City manufacturer of steel fittings is seeking subcontractors with eight-hundred to three-thousand pound drop hammer facilities for the manufacture of three hooks and buckles, similar to the item illustrated, in quantities of fifty to sixty-thousand. Subcontractor must furnish forging dies

Petaluma, Sonoma County, California. Hammer mill in feed mill

Nashville, Tennessee. Stamping out fuselage parts with a drop hammer. Vultee Aircraft Corporation plant

Petaluma, Sonoma County, California. Hammer mill in feed mill

Nashville, Tennessee. Drop hammer operator stamping out parts for Vultee bombers

Production. Steam power plant equipment. A workman with a large chipping hammer prepares to cut away excess metal in a girth seam of a high-pressure boiler drum. Steam boilers and other power-house equipment to supplement the hydroelectric installations of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) system are produced in the large Chattanooga shops of the Combustion Engineering Company

Production. Airplane manufacture, general. Finished plane parts from the drop hammer department of North American Aviation, Incorporated at Inglewood, California, are placed on trucks and delivered to the sheet metal and sub-assembly department. This plant produces the battle-tested B-25 ("Billy Mitchell") bomber, used in General Doolittle's raid on Tokyo, and the P-51 ("Mustang") fighter plane, which was first brought into prominence by the British raid on Dieppe

The good machines of America's arsenal of democracy must have good men to work them. The power hammer that forges shells for the Army is operated by experienced hammer-smiths who, a short time ago, were turning out parts for a well-known American automobile. Oldsmobile, Lansing, Michigan

Manpower. Negro navy yard workers. The brawn of the village smith is dwarfed in this modern blacksmith shop where a powerful drop hammer fashions a red hot metal slab for ship construction in an Eastern navy yard

Washington, D.C. Steam hammer used to drive piles

Nashville, Tennessee. Drop hammer operator. Vultee Aircraft Corporation plant

Manpower. Negro shipyard workers. The hammer is still an important tool in ship production. These workers are bending metal fittings on a furnace slab floor, an operation in ship construction at a large Eastern yard. Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Corporation. Kearny, New Jersey

A die maker. Dies are metal blocks with the pattern or contour of a part reproduced on their surface. They are used in presses or gorging hammers for forming identical metal parts

Tennessee Valley Authority. Watts Bar Dam hydroelectric plant. A sledge hammer in the hands of a husky ironworker at TVA's Watts Bar steam plant. This plant will supplement the big hydroelectric installations at Watts Bar Dam, which has an authorized output of 90,000 kilowatts, and a possible ultimate of 150,000 kilowatts. Each of the four big turbo-generators in the steam plant is rated at 60,000 kilowatts

Bantam, Connecticut. Armand Langevin smoothes out aluminum dies with a power hammer. A native of Canada, Langevin has been at the Warren McArthur plant for several months. He lives in Bantam, sharing a five-room house with his wife, Regine, his sister Alice, both of whom work in the plant's upholstery shop, and his two nephews, Ernest and Gerard Gervais, who also work at the plant

Production. Airplane manufacture, general. Hundreds of Kirksite and lead dies are stocked in this huge storage area at the Inglewood, California, foundry of North American Aviation, Incorporated. They move from this yard into the adjoining drip hammer department where they are used in forming sheet metal parts for United Nations war planes. This plant produces the battle-tested B-25 ("Billy Mitchell") bomber, used in General Doolittle's raid on Tokyo and the P-51 ("Mustang") fighter plane, which was first brought into prominence by the British raid on Dieppe

Production. Marine boilers. A steel valve is shaped on a large Erie forging hammer at a big Midwest plant processing much essential equipment for the Army

The big forge plant in which they work used to hammer out auto parts. Now that same plant is working its fine equipment and its trained men to full capacity on the production of shells for the Army. Oldsmobile, Lansing, Michigan

Production. Milling machines and machine castings. Fresh from the shakeout pit, where the mold is broken up and the sand sent back for reconditioning, new castings go to the core cleanout room to have the core sand removed with air and sledge hammers, vibrating machines and powerful hydraulic jets. Notice the core arbors sticking out of the sand. They are placed in the cores for the same reason that steel reinforcing bars are put in concrete floors and pillars. Each of these castings has by now become the body of a milling machine working for victory

Bantam, Connecticut. Ernest Gervais came to Bantam from Plainfield, Connecticut, a little town just outside New London. He operates a shaving machine at the Warren McArthur plant, while his younger brother runs a buffer. Two aunts, Alice and Regine Langevin, are upholsterers at the plant, while Regine's husband, Armand, operates a mechanical hammer. Alice Langevin was first to come to work at the Warren McArthur plant, in June 1941, and her two nephews followed her by a month. Shortly thereafter, Armand and Regine came from Albany, New York, where Armand was a machinist and Regine a dressmaker. Ernest goes into the Army in March 1942, with no complaints. "Wherever they think I'll do the most good," he says, "it's OK with me." Armand, a native of Montreal, was in the U.S. Army during World War I

Finished parts from the drop hammer department are placed on trucks and delivered to the sheet metal sub-assembly department

Production. Milling machines and machine castings. After losing their cores and being sand-blasted, castings go to the cleaning floor. This workman was using a pneumatic chipping hammer which with rapid-fire, chisel-like strokes trims rough edges and cuts off the uneven, jagged strips where the two halves of the mold join. Location: a large Midwest machine tool plant

Production. Steam power plant equipment. A workman with a large chipping hammer to cut away excess metal in girth of a high-pressure boiler. Steam boilers and other power-house equipment to supplement the hydroelectric installations of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) system are produced in the large Chattanooga shops of the Combustion Engineering Company

Production. Locomotives. Framed by a huge hydraulic turbine runner, this worker uses a pneumatic hammer to remove irregularities from its inner surface. This is an important operation, since a smooth waterway must be provided through the runner. Baldwin Locomotive Works