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A spinner in the Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Dec. 3/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Frank F. Gibson, 1305 Linden St. Western Union Telegraph Co. Messenger No. 7. 14 years of age. 1 year in service. Visits houses of prostitution. Guides soldiers to segregated district. Smokes. Still at school and works from 8:30 P.M. to 12:30 A.M. Investigator, Edward F. Brown. Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Louis [i.e. Lewis] W. Hine, May, 1910.

This is where the mill children live. Compare photo 342. Lancaster, S.C. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Otis Mehaffy. 4 years in mill. Small boy "helps sister" Saturdays and after school. Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina

Mrs. Finkelstein, 127 Monroe St. Bessie (age 13), Sophie (age 7). Girls attend school. Making garters for Liberty Garter works, 413 Broadway. Mother, a widow, earns 75 cents a day by working all day until 12 at night. Bessie works until 10 P.M. Sophie until 9 P.M. They expected to work until 10 P.M. to finish the job, although they did not know when more work would come in. Witness Mrs. Hosford. Location: New York, New York (State)

Mill School House (in middle) surrounded by mill houses. Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Small need here for large schoolhouse. Most of the children in mill. Location: Dillon, South Carolina

This was the smallest I could find in the Newton (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Overseer said "She just brings her sister's dinner," but as it was only 9:30 A.M., and as she worked as faithfully as her sister all the time I was in the mill, I judged she was a regular "helper." She looked to be 8 years old. Others there nearly as small. Location: Newton, North Carolina

One of The Newsies at The Newsboys' Picnic, Cincinnati. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

Mill folks, Salisbury Mills, (N.C.) Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Robert Black, (smallest) 1 year in mill. John Black, (next) 2 years in mill. Charlie Clark--4 years. Earl Lander--Beginning. Witness, S.R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina

Grace Harper (Looked 10 years old). Works in Lydia Mills, Clinton, S.C. Mother said she is very good hand at spinning. Been at it 3 years. Runs 4 and 5 sides, about 50 cents a day. Little sister Lettie helps. Mother said "she is learnin'." Looked 7 years old. Dec. 208. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Clinton, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Boys working in Scotland Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Smallest boy--Junior Bounds--Beginning. Next, Rollin Hudson - 3 years in mill. Next, Lloyd Willoughby - 3 years in mill. Next, Preston Torrent - 8 years in mill. 6 years night work - 14 years old now. "Haven't been in school more'n 3 days in my whole life." Father blind. 2 older sisters and 1 younger brother work in mill now. Has doffed all 8 years. Gets about 60 cents a day. Asked him if he didn't get tired, "No, when you get used to it you don't get tired. Some of the boys goes to sleep when they begin." Showed a remarkable degree of refinement and consideration for others. Work has not blunted this. Sunday, Dec. 6/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Noon Hour, Indianapolis Meat packing House, Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Putting Bottles into the Annealing Oven. An Indianapolis Glass Works, 1 A.M. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

10 P.M. in An Indiana Glass Works. Location: Indiana

"Teaching the young idea." The Boss (who began at 10 years of age, and has been at it for 30 years) showing a beginner (who is apparently 9 or 10) See 169. Location: Morgantown, West Virginia

Young doffers in Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Dec. 3/08. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Spinners and doffers, Lancaster Cotton Mills, S.C. Dozens of them in this mill. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

A Western Union Messenger Boy Leaving Office. Cincinnati. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

A.D.T. ? messengers. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Newberry Mills (S.C.) Noon hour. All are working here. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina

Ozark Mill, Gastonia, N.C. Work 12 hours at a stretch. No special time off to eat. "Eat a-workin'." 9:00 P.M. Friday, Nov. 6, 1908. Mill was running. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A spinner in Cycle Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. She was 49 inches high. Been there "bout 2 years." 50 operatives and there were 10 children that looked to be under 12 years of age. Location: Newton, North Carolina

Group of Miners, Drivers and Trapper. Macdonald, W. Va., Mine. Oct. 1908. Witness E.N. Clopper. Location: MacDonald, West Virginia

Holland Mfg. Co., Gastonia, N.C. 8:00 P.M. Mill running nights. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Dickson Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. Eddie Williamson (taller). Been in mill 3 years. John Eliot--Been in mill 7 years. Witness, S.R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina

Amusing themselves while waiting for morning papers. Location: New York, New York (State)

A Group of Young Fellows Working in a Cannery, In Indianapolis, Aug. 1908. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Noon hour. Muncie Wheel & Jobbing Co. Most of the boys were gone home to dinner. Location: Muncie, Indiana

Boys at Lehr glass works. Location: West Virginia

Newberry Mills, (S.C.) Noon hour. Dec. 3, 08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Interior of Kesler Mfg. Co., Salisbury, N.C. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Maggie Wooten (Largest), creels on warper. Lillie Anderson--Oldest of two sisters. Been in mill five years. Runs only 4 sides. Minnie Anderson, - youngest- runs 8 sides. Been in mill 4 year. One finds many such cases where youngest sister does twice the amount of work. Nov. 2808. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

A Glimpse from the Outside into The World Furniture Co., Evansville, Ind. During working hours. Location: Evansville, Indiana

Group of mill hands working in Salisbury, N.C. Cotton Mills. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Willie Lee, 24 Ozark Mill, Gastonia, N.C. 10 years old. Been in mill 2 months. Doffer. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina

Daniel Mill, Lincolnton, N.C. Group of women and two girls. Shows type of adolescent. Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

A Basket Factory. Boys making grate bottoms. In summer, many more young boys and girls. Location: Evansville, Indiana

Watching The Races, The Newsboys' Picnic, Cincinnati. Cincinnati, Ohio

Bob Burton, Gastonia, N.C. 15 years old. A typical adolescent, overgrown, thin, anaemic sic. Been in mill for 8 years. Doffing still in Ozark Mills. Gastonia, North Carolina

Noon Hour in a Furniture Factory, Indianapolis. Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Gastonia, N.C. Boy on right hand works nights. Sunday, November 9 [i.e., 8?], 1908. This mill was running nights at the time this photograph was taken. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Noon Hour in an Indianapolis Furniture Factory. Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Group of boys working in Lancaster, S.C. Cotton Mills. Smallest boy in middle said has been in the mill off and on for 5 yrs. Spins now. Nov. 30, 1909sic. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

In neighborhood of Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Lawrence Faircloth (taller boy) "Don't know how old I am." Been in mill 2 years. Runs 3 sides Albert Bartlett (barefoot) Looked 8 years old. In mill 2 years--Beginning to spin. Runs 2-12 sides = 25 cents a day. Bad conditions. Saturday, Dec. 5, 08. Location: Dillon, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Cherryville Graded School, Cherryville, N.C. These are all the children in town who attend school. 2,000 population. One-third of these raised their hands when asked, "How many have worked in a cotton mill?". Location: Cherryville, North Carolina

122 Sullivan St. 2nd Floor rear. Leveroni family. Earn 4 cents a gross making violets. Can make 20 gross a day when children work all day. Father has work. Mrs. Leveroni; Tessie Leveroni, age 9; Stephen Leveroni, age 6; Margaret Leveroni, age 7; Josephine Cordono, age 10. These children work on Saturdays on afternoons after 3 o'clock, and evenings until 8 or 9. Location: New York, New York (State)

Postal Telegraph Boy. David Caplan, 9 Monroe Street. Said he was 15 years old. Works from 11 P.M. to 8 A.M., often down around the docks. Location: New York, New York (State)

Noon Hour, Bosse Furniture Co., Evansville, Ind. Oct. 1908. Location: Evansville, Indiana

View of Scotland Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. All these boys work in mill. Sunday, Dec. 608. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Melville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. View of spinning room. Location: Cherryville, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Young doffers in Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Dec. 308. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Geo. Rabholz, 14 years old, 724 Main St., Cincinnati, Ohio, Delivers bundles for a printing office. Aug. 1908. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

Carolina cotton mill worker and his family all are working. Location: South Carolina

Wylie Mill, Chester, S.C. Tommy Ashville, (smaller boy) 2 years in mill. "Specks I'm about 11." Arthur Shelly, 8 years in mill. 14 years old. Other boys agreed he had been in mill 8 years. Location: Chester, South Carolina

Melville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. View of spinning room. Location: Cherryville, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Closing hour Loray Mill, Gastonia, N.C. November 7, 1908. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Lena Lochiavo, 11 years old, 209 W. Sixth St., Basket Seller, Sixth Street Market, Cincinnati. In front of saloon entrance. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

Newberry Mills, Newberry, S.C. Going home to dinner. Dec. 3/08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Indiana Mfg. Co., Boy working at circular saw. A number of young boys here working around saws, belts, planing machines, etc. Location: Peru, Indiana

Boys taking away from saws and brading. Schultze, Waltman & Co. Planing Mill Evansville, Ind. Location: Evansville, Indiana

Some of the larger spinners in Catawba Cotton Mills, Newton, N.C. Location: Newton, North Carolina

Men and boys of this family all work in Eureka Cotton Mills. H.O. Roof. B. F. Roof --10 years in mill. Lawrence Roof--4 years in mill. Albert Roof--(Smallest) 1 year in mill. Doffs--50 cents a day. 56 inches high. Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina

National Child Labor Committee, #200. S. W. Brown Mfg. Co., Evansville, Ind. Location: Evansville, Indiana

Maple Mills, Dillon, S.C. Lonnie Baker (tallest). Has doffed 4 years. Gets 40 cents a day. Bertie Baser--10 years old. 3 years in mill. Runs 3 sides = 30 cents a day. Location: Dillon, South Carolina

Ozark Mill, Gastonia, N.C. Work 12 hours at a stretch. No special time off to eat. "Eat a-workin'." 9:00 P.M. Friday, Nov. 6, 1908. Mill was running. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

A Saturday ball game. Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Boy with glove, Malcom Rogers. (See photo 329). Next to him - Ben Deaton--12 years old. 52 inches high. Weaver. Runs 6 looms at $1.00 a day. 2 years in mill. I asked him if it wasn't hard work. "Hardest part if it is I have to stretch so much to reach up." (Tallest boy) John Lewis--12 years old. 1 yr. in mill. Weaves--4 looms. Got 40 cents to start. 60 cents now a day. Brother and father in mills. Nov. 2808 Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

9 P.M. in an Indiana Glass Works. Aug. 1908. Location: Indiana

Cherryville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. Plenty of young boys and girls. Location: Cherryville, North Carolina

Some of the operatives, Dickson Mills, Laurinburg, N.C. Dec. 6, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

#37. (See also #36 & #38.) Harry McShane. Cincinnati. See account of accident, attached to photo #36. Aug. 1908. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio. Photo by ...

Machine used in Gary W. Va. mine that digs the coal and loads it on the car. With it 3 men can do the work of 50 in the old way. Yet they use boys to drive and trap. Location: Gary, West Virginia

Indianapolis Furniture Factory's Water Boy. Witness, E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Group of mill hands working in Salisbury, N.C. Cotton Mills. Location: Salisbury, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Group of Newsboys on Frankfort Street near World Building. Witness, Fred McMurrry. Location: New York, New York (State) Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Azy Warn--Winds. Stella Warn (little one) spins 4 sides. "Been at it a long time." Location: Dillon, South Carolina

A spinner in Clyde Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. Location: Newton, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

John Ghent has worked at spinning for 1 year. Goes to school now. Been Sick. Lancaster, S.C. Cotton Mills. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

Grace Harper (Looked 10 years old). Works in Lydia Mills, Clinton, S.C. Mother said she is very good hand at spinning. Been at it 3 years. Runs 4 and 5 sides, about 50 cents a day. Little sister Lettie helps. Mother said "she is learnin'." Looked 7 years old. Dec. 2/08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Clinton, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Melville Mfg. Co., Cherryville, N.C. Smallest chap said he had been in mill for 2 years. Many youngster here. Location: Cherryville, North Carolina

Dillon Mills, Dillon S.C. (Boy) Ransom English--doffs, been in mill 6 years. (Next) Florence Burr--runs 5 sides. In mill 4 years. (Next) Bessie English - 3 sides, 3 years in mill. (Next) Alphie Burr - 2 sides, 1 year in mill. (Next) Lela English, 1 year in mill. 48 inches high. Saturday, Dec. 5, 1908. Location: Dillon, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Types of adolescents. Boys working in Eureka Cotton Mills, Chester, S.C. Rob Dover--(Tallest boy). Been in mill eight or nine years. Melvin Reilly (next). In mill one year. Boyd McKowan (shortest boy). About 15 years old. Been in mill 5 years. Sunday, Nov. 29, 08. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

(Tallest) Sam Bigham, Eureka Cotton Mills. Been in mill 10 years. (Next) Washey Dover--Been in 3 years. (Next) Lloyd Barnado--2 years in mill. (Smallest) Ernst Floyd--10 years old, 52 inches high. Been in mill 2 years. Spins--60 cents a day. Witness S.R. Hine. Location: Chester, South Carolina

Doffers in Trenton Mills, Gastonia, N.C. Others as small and some smaller. Little girls too. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina

Dillon Mills, Dillon, S.C. Lizzie Davis, (smallest). Been in mill 2 years. Next--Nettie Arnet - Been in mill 8 years. Next--Monnie McCraney, been in mill 3 years. Next--Vater Arnet, been in mill 8 years. Next--Mattie Connor, spinners and Winders. Saturday, Dec. 5, 08. Location: Dillon, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Rhodes Mfg. Company, Lincolnton, N.C. Old man inspecting yarn. Been in cotton mills over 20 years. Location: Lincolnton, North Carolina

Lancaster (S.C.) Cotton Mills, Wesley Strand (with gun). Has been in mill 1 year. Been sick lately. Rochel Stokes. In mill 1 year. Said he had trouble and quit. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

1 A.M. near the World Building, ready to start out. Two of the sleepers (See No. 21A) Larger boy Abraham Jachnes, 13 years old. Newsboys Lodging House, 14 Chambers St. Has not been home for 6 months because step-mother has been trying to put him into a House of Refuge. Could not get name of smaller boy, but he was younger, probably 11 years old. These boys are hanging about and snatching and occasional sleep in sheltered spots. Location: New York, New York (State)

A spinner in Clyde Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. Location: Newton, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Day Scene in an Indiana Glass Works. Aug. 1908. Location: Indiana

Girls in Packing Room. Central Glass Co., Wheeling West Virginia. Several very young girls pack here. Location: Wheeling, West Virginia

Group of boys working in Lancaster S.C. Cotton mills. Smallest boy said he had worked in the mill off and on for five years. Spins now. Location: Lancaster, South Carolina

Lincoln Cotton Mill, Evansville, Ind. Boy sweeping small boy picking up and carrying away. (Bad light and shaking floors.) Location: Evansville, Indiana

Group of Drivers and Trapper Boys: A Mile from Entrance, Turkey Knob Mine, Macdonald W. Va. Oct. 1908. Witness, E.N. Clopper. Location: MacDonald, West Virginia

Whitnel (N.C.) Cotton Mills. Everyone in this family except the mother, works in the mill. Father earns $1.00 a day. Smallest girl, Annie Philips, been there only a few months, earns nearly a dollar a day. Next in size, Clara Phillips, 13 years old, Been there 3 or 4 years, earns over a dollar a day. Next, Daisy Philips. Next, Mary Philips. A dollar a day each. Oldest is married and husband is in the mill. The superintendent said it is unusual for the father to work when children get large enough to work. He usually loafs. That's why the mills are so full of children. Location: Whitnel, North Carolina

Noon hour, Singer Mfg. Co. Boys work there: girls carry lunch. Location: South Bend, Indiana

Noon Hour Meal at an Indianapolis Packing House, Aug. 1908. Wit. E.N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana

Boys working in Scotland Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. Smallest boy--Junior Bounds--Beginning. Next, Rollin Hudson - 3 years in mill. Next, Lloyd Willoughby - 3 years in mill. Next, Preston Torrent - 8 years in mill. 6 years night work - 14 years old now. "Haven't been in school more'n 3 days in my whole life." Father blind. 2 older sisters and 1 younger brother work in mill now. Has doffed all 8 years. Gets about 60 cents a day. Asked him if he didn't get tired, "No, when you get used to it you don't get tired. Some of the boys goes to sleep when they begin." Showed a remarkable degree of refinement and consideration for others. Work has not blunted this. Sunday, Dec. 608. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina Photo by Lewis W. Hine

Aven Mill, Gastonia, N.C. Work 12 hours without any stop for lunch. "Eat a-workin." 8:30 P.M. Friday. Mill running nights. Location: Gastonia, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., Nov. 6, 1908.

One of the doffers in Cawtaba Cotton Mill, Newton, N.C. Location: Newton, North Carolina

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