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The silent sorrow of the enfranchised slave.

Buffalo, New York. Willert Park housing project. U.S. Housing Authority

Oil burners to machine gun parts. Using a micrometer to check this small part for an army machine gun, this worker must achieve tolerance not greater than 1/10,000 of an inch. This upper New York state factory, which formerly produced oil burners, is under contract for 75,000 small precision parts for the Army. Its employees are super-skilled workmen, many of whom have been with the firm for decades. Reif-Rexoil Company, Buffalo, New York

Oil burners to machine gun parts. Painted olive-drab, this oil burner awaits shipment to American armed forces--somewhere in the field. Converted to a large degree to production of precision gun parts, the factory which manufactures these oil burners ships most of them either to the Army or abroad under lend-lease contracts. Reif-Rexoil Company, Buffalo, New York

Oil burners to machine gun parts. Machining of a fixture to be used on milling machines which have been converted from production of oil burners to the manufacture of small precision parts for machine guns. Location: a factory in upper New York State. Reif-Rexoil Company, Buffalo, New York

Auto conversion to airplane engines. With one hundred percent conversion of this automobile factory to production of airplane engines, the gigantic task of remodelling old machinery, removal of old and installation of new equipment, and extensive rebuilding of the plant itself was formidable--but speedy. Under terms of its contract, production was not scheduled until October, but Herulean efforts of management and labor reduced this to early spring of this year. Carloads of scrap material torn out of the plant are shown here at a siding back of the factory. Chevrolet, Buffalo, New York

Oil burners to machine gun parts. Oil burners are the normal product of this Eastern factory now undergoing conversion to production of small precision parts for machine guns. This milling machine has not yet been converted to the war effort and is still turning out parts for burners. Reif-Rexoil Company, Buffalo, New York

Auto conversion to airplane engines. With normal operations of this automobile factory suspended for the duration, the gigantic task of converting the entire plant (floor space: 500' x 900') to war production was taken over by the National Defense Plant Corporation. This involved all degrees of remodelling, the removal of old and installation of new machinery, and extensive rebuilding of the plant itself. This hand milling machine, formerly used in manufacture of automobile motors, has been converted to production of airplane engines. In peacetime it was used to mill the pulley keyway on the front of crankshafts. It cost $150 to convert this $1,800 machine with installation of a special fixture to enable milling of staking nicks at each end of crankpin oil hobs. Chevrolet, Buffalo, New York

Oil burners to machine gun parts. A battery of oil burners ready for shipment. Now undergoing conversion to production of machine gun parts for Uncle Sam's army, this plant has only a small percentage of its equipment still producing oil burners. Those still rolling off the assembly lines are sent primarily to U.S. Army agencies or shipped abroad under lend-lease contracts. Reif-Rexoil Company, Buffalo, New York

Auto conversion to airplane engines. "We'll be turning out as many airplane engines as Carter does pills," employees of a converted automobile factory told OEM (Office of Emergency Management) photographer. Now undergoing one hundred percent conversion to airplane motor production, this factory employs thousands of workers who are familiarizing themselves with the newly installed tools and machines. A worker here operates a vertical Bullard turtle lathe, machining part of the aluminum crank case of a fourteen-cylinder airplane engine. Chevrolet, Buffalo, New York

Auto conversion to airplane engines. Some of the equipment impossible to convert from automobile engine manufacture to production of airplane motors is shown back of a huge automobile factory. A dismantled paint booth (left foreground) is among the scrap. In the background, against the rising glass roofs of the plant, tar-covered sheds house valuable machines which could not be converted, and are being stored for the duration to make room for the new war equipment. Chevrolet, Buffalo, New York

Auto conversion to airplane engines. Once vital to automobile production, these dust pipes, ventilators of spray booths and other relics of pre-war days are relegated to the dump heap, useless now that the plant is one hundred percent converted to production of airplane motors. Chevrolet, Buffalo, New York

Auto conversion to airplane engines. "We'll be turning out as many airplane engines as Carter does pills," employees of a converted automobile factory told OEM (Office of Emergency Management) photographer. Now undergoing one hundred percent conversion to airplane motor production, this factory employs thousands of workers who are familiarizing themselves with the newly installed tools and machines. Two workers here lathe the cylinder of an airplane motor. Under terms of its contract, production was not scheduled until October, but Herculean efforts of management and labor completed the conversion this spring. Chevrolet, Buffalo, New York

Auto conversion to airplane engines. Automobile company personnel and U.S. Army inspectors view expanse of freshly laid cement covering track wells where freight cars rolled before December 1941. With one hundred percent conversion to airplane motor production, new machinery and equipment will occupy this space. Other requirements of conversion included the denuding of five and one-half miles of overhead conveyers. Chevrolet, Buffalo, New York

Oil burners to machine gun parts. Fixture which holds bare of raw materials from which small pieces, cut to size, are obtained for production of precision parts for Uncle Sam's machine gun squads. Site of these operations is an Eastern factory which has been converted from manufacture of oil burners to production of war essentials. Reif-Rexoil Company, Buffalo, New York

Oil burners to machine gun parts. Not marbles or thimbles, but row upon row of completed machine gun parts, today's production of an oil-burner factory in upper New York State. Manufacture of these small parts requires top skill, for tolerance of 1/10,000 of an inch is demanded by U.S. ordnance officers. Reif-Rexoil Company, Buffalo, New York

Auto conversion to airplane engines. With normal operations of this automobile factory suspended for the duration, the gigantic task of converting the entire plant to war production was taken over by the National Defense Plant Corporation. This involved all degrees of remodelling, the removal of old and installation of new machinery, and extensive rebuilding of the plant itself. An ex-automobile worker is pictured here operating a centering machine to determine the plain and stroke of an airplane engine crankshaft. Chevrolet, Buffalo, New York

Oil burners to machine gun parts. With conversion of a New York State oil-burner plant to production of precision parts for machine guns, additional equipment and manpower were mandatory. Unable to purchase sufficient new machines, these two used to hand operated milling machines were installed. The young worker was recruited from a defense vocational training school. Reif-Rexoil Company, Buffalo, New York

Oil burners to machine gun parts. Oil burners are the normal product of this Eastern factory now undergoing conversion to production of small precision parts for machine guns. This machine has been converted to production of gun parts. Reif-Rexoil Company, Buffalo, New York

Buffalo, New York. Silent tribute to the war dead at the "I am an American" day rally in Memorial Auditorium

Buffalo, New York. Patsy Grimm helping to do all the housework. Their mother, a twenty-six year old widow, is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth

Buffalo, New York. Third shifters getting breakfast. Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) coeducational recreation program for the third shift and swing shift workers from 9 a.m. to 1 and midnight to 5 a.m. includes sports, singing and dancing

Buffalo, New York. Polish religious order marching in a procession at Easter high mass at the Corpus Christi Church in the Polish community

Buffalo, New York. Laura and Frank Czaya, a couple of Polish descent, in the bedroom of the home which they share with Laura's mother, aunt, and brother, in Depew. Frank is home on a ten-day furlough. Laura works in the nearby Symington-Gould plant

Buffalo, New York. Laura and Frank Czaya, a couple of Polish descent, in the bedroom in the home which they share with Laura's mother, aunt, and brother, in Depew. Frank is home on a ten-day furlough. Laura works in the nearby Symington-Gould plant

Buffalo, New York. Mary Grimm, eight, doing the housework. Her mother, a twenty-six year old widow, is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth

Buffalo, New York. Recently-employed women being sworn into the rubber workers union at a Sunday meeting. Most of them have never worked before and know little about trade unionism

Buffalo, New York. Watching the Scotch Highlander Band perform at the "I am an American" day rally in Memorial Auditorium

Buffalo, New York. Tugboats, grain boats, and grain elevators on the Erie Canal

Buffalo, New York. Lakeview nursery school for children of working mothers, operated by the Board of education at a tuition fee of three dollars weekly. Lee comes to school before breakfast, so has it there

Buffalo, New York. Lakeview nursery school for children of working mothers, operated by the Board of Education at a tuition fee of three dollars weekly. Children from outside looking into the nursery school yard longingly

Buffalo, New York. Grain boat from Deluth unloading wheat at a grain elevator on the Erie Canal

Buffalo, New York. Cecelia Wrazen, a roller, inserting tubes into condensers for the Navy at the Ross Heater plant

Buffalo, New York. Swingshift workers on the sidelines at the weekly swingshift dance held at the Main-Utica ballroom

Buffalo, New York. At the swingshift dance held weekly from midnight to four a.m. at the Main-Utica ballroom

Buffalo, New York. Italian-American woman, grinder and hooker at the New York Car Wheel Company, powdering her nose. This concern has only recently hired women, and the women's locker room is still unfinished. A plumber can be seen in the background installing a sink. This situation is typical of many defense plants, especially in heavy industry

Buffalo, New York. Cecelia Wrazen, who works at the Ross Heater plant, is engaged to a precision lathe operator in the same plant. Fellow workers presenting Cecelia with a wedding gift

Buffalo, New York. Lakeview nursery school for children of working mothers, operated by the Board of Education at a tuition fee of three dollars weekly. Playing in the well-equipped yard

Buffalo, New York. Mrs. Grimm, a twenty-six year old widow, with six children under twelve, is a crane operator in a war plant. Her two youngest children live in a foster home during the week. Their foster mother, Mrs. Hehr, gave a birthday party for Mona, two

Buffalo, New York. United States NYA (National Youth Administration) trainee being trained to use a lathe in preparation for a job in industry. She is under twenty, works eight hours a day and gets paid forty dollars a month during training

Buffalo, New York. Parade held to raise money for the cruiser Buffalo

Buffalo, New York. Easter table prepared for blessing by the priest at a home in the Polish community on the day before Easter. For Poles, Easter is a day for church going, feasting and visiting. Lamb in the center of the table is made of butter

Buffalo, New York. Mrs. Grimm, a twenty-six year old widow with six children who is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth (note the PL on her uniform), makers of castings used for ships, tanks, etc.

Buffalo, New York. Lakeview nursery school for children of working mothers, operated by the Board of Education at a tuition fee of three dollars weekly. Children from outside looking into the nursery school yard longingly

Buffalo, New York. Lakeview nursery school for children of working mothers, operated by the Board of Education at a tuition fee of three dollars weekly. Mid-afternoon lunch of milk and zweibach

Buffalo, New York. "Hookers" standing in front of gondola car in Republic Steel yard

Buffalo, New York. The Grimm family eating Sunday dinner. Mrs. Grimm, a twenty-six year old widow, is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth. The two youngest children live in a foster home during the week

Buffalo, New York. The Grimm children doing the housework. Their mother, a twenty-six year old widow, is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth

Buffalo, New York. Lakeview nursery school for children of working mothers, operated by the Board of Education at a tuition fee of three dollars weekly. Lee

Buffalo, New York. Playing volleyball at Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) coeducational recreation program for third shift and swing shift workers from 9 a.m. to 1 and midnight to 5 a.m.; includes sports, singing and dancing

Buffalo, New York. Procession and high mass on Easter at the Corpus Christi church in the Polish community

Buffalo, New York. Easter high mass at the Corpus Christi church in the Polish community

Buffalo, New York. The wedding of Cecelia Wrazen and Bronislaus Nowak, who work at Ross Heater, makers of condensers for the Navy. They are of Polish descent. He is temporarily deferred from the Army because of his essential work. They will live with her mother

Buffalo, New York. At the wedding of Cedelia Wrazen and Bronislaus Nowak, who are of Polish descent. They are employed at Ross Heater, makers of condensers for the Navy. Cecelia with two of her bridesmaids

Buffalo, New York. Children of the Polish community waiting in church on the day before Easter with baskets of food to be blessed by the priest. This ceremony celebrated the breaking of Lenten fasting, and the food is eaten on Easter day

Buffalo, New York. Mrs. Grimm, (left), a widow of twenty-six with six children under twelve, is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth. Her two youngest children, Carol, five, and Mona, two, live in a foster home during the week. They come home on Sundays. Here, Mrs. Grimm is bringing them back to foster mother, Mrs. Hehr (right), after Sunday supper

Buffalo, New York. Grain boats and grain elevators on the Erie Canal

Buffalo, New York. Mona, two, and Carol Grimm, five, being put to bed by their foster mother Mrs. Hehr, with whom they live during the week. Sundays they go home to their mother who is a twenty-six year old widow with six children under twelve. She works as a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth

Buffalo, New York. Frank and Laura Czaya praying in church one week after Easter. They were married six months before Frank was drafted. He is now a corporal, stationed in Arkansas and is home on a ten day furlough. Laura works in the Symington-Gould plant; lives in an apartment with her family in Depew. The Czayas are of Polish descent

Buffalo, New York. Soda bar at the swingshift dance held weekly at the Main-Utica ballroom. Drinking of hard liquor is forbidden

Buffalo, New York. The wedding of Cecelia Wrazen and Bronislaus Nowak, who work at Ross Heater, makers of condensers for the Navy. They are of Polish descent. He is temporarily deferred from the Army because of his essential work

Buffalo, New York. The Grimm family. Mrs. Grimm, a twenty-six year-old widow with six children under twelve, is a crane operator in a war plant. The two youngest children live in a foster home during the week. The others stay at school all day, but on Saturday are home and do all housework. Patsy, six, drying the breakfast dishes

Buffalo, New York. Soda bar at the swingshift dance held weekly at the Main-Utica ballroom. Drinking of hard liquor is forbidden

Buffalo, New York. Italian-American woman operating a hand-controlled boring machine which makes holes through locomotive wheels at the New York Car Wheel Company, makers of locomotive wheels for the railroads

Buffalo, New York. Lakeview nursery school for children of working mothers, operated by the Board of Education at a tuition fee of three dollars weekly. Playing in the well-equipped yard

Buffalo, New York. Woman learning to operate an axle lathe at the New York Car Wheel Company, makers of locomotive wheels for the railroads

Buffalo, New York. The Grimm family eating Sunday dinner. Mrs. Grimm, a twenty-six year old widow, is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth. The two youngest children live in a foster home during the week

Buffalo, New York. Swingshift workers sitting on the sidelines at the weekly shift dance held from midnight to four a.m. at the Main-Utica ballroom

Buffalo, New York. Symington-Gould, makers of tank, ship and railroad parts. Sand slinger operated by a woman. Sand is forced onto pattern with air pressure. The operator wears safety goggles and a dust-proof noseguard to protect herself from ricocheting sand and must rest every twenty minutes or so

Buffalo, New York. After placing chains around steel bars, "hookers" give signal to the crane operator to hoist in the finishing department of Republic Steel

Buffalo, New York. Peter Grimm, age ten, waiting with his wagon outside Loblaw's grocery store for customers to ask him to deliver their groceries. This was a rainy day with few customers. Sometimes Peter makes as much as three dollars on a Saturday. He pays for all his school supplies and much of his clothing. His mother, a twenty-six year old widow, is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth

Buffalo, New York. Flower girls strewing rose petals in the procession at Easter high mass at the Corpus Christi Church in the Polish community

Buffalo, New York. Lakeview nursery school for children of working mothers, operated by the Board of Education at a tuition fee of three dollars weekly. Mother coming to pick up her child after work

Buffalo, New York. Lakeview nursery school for children of working mothers, operated by the Board of Education at a tuition fee of three dollars weekly. Children from outside looking into the nursery school yard longingly

Buffalo, New York. Beverly Ann Grimm, eleven, examining her omelette. She is disappointed with the results, it puffed up too much without browning. She is a good cook. Pasty and Mary, her sisters, look on. Their mother, a twenty-six year old widow, is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth

Buffalo, New York. Frank and Laura Czaya praying in church one week after Easter. They were married six months before Frank was drafted. He is now a corporal, stationed in Arkansas and is home on a ten day furlough. Laura works in the Symington-Gould plant; lives in an apartment with her family in Depew. The Czayas are of Polish descent

Buffalo, New York. Line at late moving picture show which starts between 1:30 and 2 a.m. once a week especially for workers on the swing shift

Buffalo, New York. Mrs. Grimm, a twenty-six year old widow with six children under twelve, works as a crane operator in a war plant. For work she wears slacks, which can be buttoned around, and safety shoes, which have inner metal plates in toes for protection from falling weights

Buffalo, New York. Two "hookers" load a crane from a gondola car in the Republic Steel yard

Buffalo, New York. Beverly Ann Grimm, eleven, leaving the store after making the family purchases from a list left that morning by her twenty-six year old widowed mother who is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth

Buffalo, New York. Patsy Grimm, age six, dusting and Mary Grimm, eight, sweeping in the front room. Their mother, a twenty-six year old widow, is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth

Buffalo, New York. Women have entirely replaced men as chainmen or "hookers" in the finishing department of Republic Steel. "Hookers" place slings and chains around material to be hoisted by cranes so that it can be moved to another section of the plant or loaded onto freight trains

Buffalo, New York. Patsy Grimm, age six, removing the bottles from the kitchen table. Her mother, a twenty-six year old widow, is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth

Cecelia Wrazen, who works at the Ross Heater plant, is engaged to a precision lathe operator in the same plant. Fellow workers presenting Cecelia with a wedding gift

Buffalo, New York. Women employees eating lunches brought from home at Ross Heater, makers of condensers for the Navy. There are no eating facilities in the plant, and since there is only a thirty-minute period, most workers bring lunches

Buffalo, New York. Women operating lathes at the New York Car Wheel Company, makers of locomotive wheels for the railroads. The company never hired women until recently and most of these women are still learning to use the machines

Buffalo, New York. Mary Grimm, eight, doing the housework. Her mother, a twenty-six year old widow, is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth

Scoopers on a grain boat from Deluth unloading at a grain elevator on the Erie Canal. Buffalo, New York

Buffalo, New York. Beverly Ann Grimm, eleven, the oldest of six children, stops to listen to the radio while sweeping the front room. Her mother, a twenty-six year old widow, is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth

Buffalo, New York. Priest blessing baskets of food outside the church in the Polish community on the day before Easter. The ceremony celebrates the breaking of Lent in fasting. The food is eaten on Easter day

Buffalo, New York. All "hookers" in the processing department of Republic Steel are women. Resting on a pile of billets, they are eating lunch on the job

Buffalo, New York. Procession of the Blessed Sacrament during Easter high mass at the Corpus Christi church in the Polish community

Buffalo, New York. Tired swingshift workers sitting on the sidelines at the swingshift dance held weekly from midnight to 4 a.m. at the Main-Utica ballroom

Buffalo, New York. Italian-American woman grinding the end of a locomotive wheel at the New York Car Wheel Company, makers of wheels for the railroads

Buffalo, New York. Grain elevators and tugboats on the Erie Canal

Buffalo, New York. Grain boats and grain elevators on the Erie Canal

Buffalo, New York. The Grimm children doing the housework. Their mother, a twenty-six year old widow, is a crane operator at Pratt and Letchworth

Buffalo, New York. Mabel Goodwin, forty-five, poses for an identification photograph at the Bell Aircraft plant. She worked in a factory in the last war; has since been a housewife and has two children over fourteen

Buffalo, New York. Symington-Gould, makers of tank, ship, and railroad parts. Making mold for armor plates to be tested on proving ground. The flask, or metal frame is placed over the flask, and two men press it down with air hammers

Buffalo, New York. Women factory workers attending mass at nine a.m. Sunday directly after working the third shift. They are wearing slacks