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U.S. Reports: Tool Company v. Norris, 69 U.S. (2 Wall.) 45 (1865)

Women in industry. Tool production. Inspecting thousands of drills each day, women employed by a large Midwest drill and tool company must learn to detect the tiniest flaw in these vital machine accessories. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. "X" marks the kind of work being done by these women cutoff machine operators who are processing small machine parts in a Midwest drill and tool plant. Although this work is relatively unskilled, industrial experience was new to most of the women, many of whom had previously been waitresses, schoolteachers, or saleswomen. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. A job which was formerly done by hand (and by men) is done in this large Midwest drill and tool plant by women at machines. These young workers are putting precision-ground points on drills which will be used in production of America's ships, tanks and guns. It takes at least four months to train these young women in the operation of these machines, but at the end of that period their work is speedy and efficient, and this company has found that both production and the quality of the drill points have improved. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. With no previous industrial experience, this young woman has taken over a delicate job in a large Midwest drill and tool company. Her part in America's war production consists of grinding small drills to a high tolerance on this clearance-grinding machine. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Eyes averted from the white shower of sparks, this young employee of a drill and tool plant touches the button that welds drills to their shanks. She's one of nearly 1,000 women who have replaced men at the production machines of this Midwest factory. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. With no previous industrial experience, this young woman has taken over a delicate job in a large Midwest drill and tool company. Her part in America's war production consists of grinding small drills to a high tolerance on this clearance-grinding machine. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Women at work for victory. These young employees of a Midwest drill and tool plant are operating cylindrical grinders which taper drills to specified size. Used in the manufacture of guns, ships, tanks and all war production where metal is used, these drills demand precise and accurate grinding. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Maybe it isn't Shakespeare, but it makes sense to the employees of this drill and tool plant who are manufacturing thousands of drills each day for use in all war production industries. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. With no previous industrial experience, this young woman has taken over a delicate job in a large Midwest drill and tool company. Her part in America's war production consists of grinding small drills to a high tolerance on this clearance-grinding machine. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Pioneers of the production line, these two young workers are among the first women ever to operate a centerless grinder, a machine requiring both the knowledge of precision measuring instruments, and considerable experience and skill in setting up. In this Midwest drill and tool plant, manned almost exclusively by women, centerless grinders have been efficiently operated by women for more than a year, and company production figures have continued to soar. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. "X" marks the kind of work being done by these women cutoff machine operators who are processing small machine parts in a Midwest drill and tool plant. Although this work is relatively unskilled, industrial experience was new to most of the women, many of whom had previously been waitresses, schoolteachers, or saleswomen. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Sharp eyes and agile fingers make these young women ideal machine operators. They're conditioning and reshaping milling cutters in a huge Midwest drill and tool company. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Testing small diameter, high-speed twist drills, these women employed by a Midwest drill and tool company roll the drills down a slight incline to determine regularity of diameter. It's a job requiring patience and finger dexterity, and these young women possess those definite feminine propensities for just such work. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Production. Airplanes. The air compressor room of a large Western aircraft plant. Here, compressors made by the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company serve rivet guns, air drills, paint sprays, hydraulic presses, and other air-operated equipment

Women in industry. Tool production. Arms for the love of America! The capable young woman whose strong hands guide this cutoff machine is one of a Midwest drill and tool factory's many women employees. Almost 1,000 women have recently been employed in this comparatively new plant; sole men workers, other than foreman, are those in the heat treating department. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Eyes averted from the white shower of sparks, this young employee of a drill and tool plant touches the button that welds drills to their shanks. She's one of nearly 1,000 women who have replaced men at the production machines of this Midwest factory. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. A skilled lathe operator who probably never saw a lathe until a year ago, this young worker employed by a Midwest drill and tool company puts finishing touches on the shank of a drill

Women in industry. Tool production. A job which was formerly done by hand (and by men) is done in this large Midwest drill and tool plant by women at machines. These young workers are putting precision-ground points on drills which will be used in production of America's ships, tanks and guns. It takes at least four months to train these young women in the operation of these machines, but at the end of that period their work is speedy and efficient, and this company has found that both production and the quality of the drill points have improved. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Testing small diameter, high-speed twist drills, this young woman employed by a Midwest drill and tool company is one of America's women "behind the men behind the guns." Drills must be perfectly made so that the nation's war weapons can be built to accurate specifications. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Two of nearly 1,000 women who "keep 'em rolling" in a large Midwest drill and tool plant, these young workers are skilled lathe operators putting taper shanks on twist drills which are used in all war production. Republic Drill and Tool Company

Women in industry. Tool production. Two to a machine, these young employees of a Midwest drill and tool company are operating cylindrical grinders. This work is delicate and difficult, for the drills must be tapered accurately to size. The drills will be used in manufacture of guns, ships, tanks and in all war production where metal must be worked. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Inspecting thousands of drills each day, women employed by a large Midwest drill and tool company must learn to detect the tiniest flaw in these vital machine accessories. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Pioneers of the production line, these two young workers are among the first women ever to operate a centerless grinder, a machine requiring both the knowledge of precision measuring instruments, and considerable experience and skill in setting up. In this Midwest drill and tool plant, manned almost exclusively by women, centerless grinders have been efficiently operated by women for more than a year, and company production figures have continued to soar. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Maybe it isn't Shakespeare, but it makes sense to the employees of this drill and tool plant who are manufacturing thousands of drills each day for use in all war production industries. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Pioneers of the production line, these two young workers are among the first women ever to operate a centerless grinder, a machine requiring both the knowledge of precision measuring instruments, and considerable experience and skill in setting up. In this Midwest drill and tool plant, manned almost exclusively by women, centerless grinders have been efficiently operated by women for more than a year, and company production figures have continued to soar. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Her mind's on her work and on her country. That small flag tells the story of this young woman's absorption in her job. Employed by a Midwest drill and tool plant, she's grinding points on drills which will be used in the production of America's ships and planes and guns. A soldier of the production front, she fights for the men on America's battlefronts. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. A skilled lathe operator who probably never saw a lathe until a year ago, this young worker employed by a Midwest drill and tool company puts finishing touches on the shank of a drill

Women in industry. Tool production. Trained to catch the tiniest defect in the smallest drill, this attractive, young inspector in a large Midwest drill and tool plant is doing valuable work for the war effort. These drills, used in the manufacture of every kind of war machinery, must be perfect so that America's planes and ships and tanks can be built to exact specifications. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. A job which was formerly done by hand (and by men) is done in this large Midwest drill and tool plant by women at machines. These young workers are putting precision-ground points on drills which will be used in production of America's ships, tanks and guns. It takes at least four months to train these young women in the operation of these machines, but at the end of that period their work is speedy and efficient, and this company has found that both production and the quality of the drill points have improved. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Arms for the love of America! The capable young woman whose strong hands guide this cutoff machine is one of a Midwest drill and tool factory's many women employees. Almost 1,000 women have recently been employed in this comparatively new plant; sole men workers, other than foreman, are those in the heat treating department. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Women at work for victory. These young employees of a Midwest drill and tool plant are operating cylindrical grinders which taper drills to specified size. Used in the manufacture of guns, ships, tanks and all war production where metal is used, these drills demand precise and accurate grinding. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Testing small diameter, high-speed twist drills, this young woman employed by a Midwest drill and tool company is one of America's women "behind the men behind the guns." Drills must be perfectly made so that the nation's war weapons can be built to accurate specifications. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Inspecting thousands of drills each day, women employed by a large Midwest drill and tool company must learn to detect the tiniest flaw in these vital machine accessories. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Pioneers of the production line, these two young workers are among the first women ever to operate a centerless grinder, a machine requiring both the knowledge of precision measuring instruments, and considerable experience and skill in setting up. In this Midwest drill and tool plant, manned almost exclusively by women, centerless grinders have been efficiently operated by women for more than a year, and company production figures have continued to soar. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Two to a machine, these young employees of a Midwest drill and tool company are operating cylindrical grinders. This work is delicate and difficult, for the drills must be tapered accurately to size. The drills will be used in manufacture of guns, ships, tanks and in all war production where metal must be worked. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Trained to catch the tiniest defect in the smallest drill, this attractive, young inspector in a large Midwest drill and tool plant is doing valuable work for the war effort. These drills, used in the manufacture of every kind of war machinery, must be perfect so that America's planes and ships and tanks can be built to exact specifications. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Her mind's on her work and on her country. That small flag tells the story of this young woman's absorption in her job. Employed by a Midwest drill and tool plant, she's grinding points on drills which will be used in the production of America's ships and planes and guns. A soldier of the production front, she fights for the men on America's battlefronts. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. With no previous industrial experience, this young woman has taken over a delicate job in a large Midwest drill and tool company. Her part in America's war production consists of grinding small drills to a high tolerance on this clearance-grinding machine. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. The hum of whirling machinery accompanies the work of these women cut-off machine operators who are processing small machine parts in a Midwest drill and tool plant. Although this work is relatively unskilled, industrial experience was new to most of these women, many of whom had previously been waitresses, schoolteachers or saleswomen. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. A job which was formerly done by hand (and by men) is done in this large Midwest drill and tool plant by women at machines. These young workers are putting precision-ground points on drills which will be used in production of America's ships, tanks and guns. It takes at least four months to train these young women in the operation of these machines, but at the end of that period their work is speedy and efficient, and this company has found that both production and the quality of the drill points have improved. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. The hum of whirling machinery accompanies the work of these women cut-off machine operators who are processing small machine parts in a Midwest drill and tool plant. Although this work is relatively unskilled, industrial experience was new to most of these women, many of whom had previously been waitresses, schoolteachers or saleswomen. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Inspecting thousands of drills each day, women employed by a large Midwest drill and tool company must learn to detect the tiniest flaw in these vital machine accessories. Republic Drill and Tool Company, Chicago, Illinois

Women in industry. Tool production. Two of nearly 1,000 women who "keep 'em rolling" in a large Midwest drill and tool plant, these young workers are skilled lathe operators putting taper shanks on twist drills which are used in all war production. Republic Drill and Tool Company

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