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Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It extends from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black and Caspian seas in the south. Russia covers 17,125,191 square kilometres (6,612,073 sq mi), spanning more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, stretching eleven time zones, and bordering 16 sovereign nations. Moscow is the country's capital and largest city; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Chelyabinsk and Samara.

Russia is the largest country in the world, the ninth-most populous country, as well as the most populous country in Europe. The country is one of the world's most sparsely populated and urbanized. About half of the country's total area is forested, concentrating around four-fifths of its total population of over 146.8 million on its smaller and dense western portion, as opposed to its larger and sparse eastern portion. Russia is administratively divided into 85 federal subjects. The Moscow Metropolitan Area is the largest metropolitan area in Europe, and among the largest in the world, with more than 20 million residents.

The East Slavs emerged as a recognisable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. The medieval state of Rus' arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states, until it was finally reunified by the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the 15th century. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which became a major European power, and the third-largest empire in history. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian SFSR became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognised as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. Following the constitutional crisis of 1993, a new constitution was adopted, and Russia has since been governed as a federal semi-presidential republic

Russia is described as a potential superpower, with the world's second-most powerful military, and the fourth-highest military expenditure. As a recognised nuclear-weapon state, the country possesses the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons. Its economy ranks as the eleventh-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by PPP. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest in the world, and it is one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. It hosts the world's ninth-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and is simultaneously ranked very high in the Human Development Index, with a universal healthcare system, and a free university education. Russia is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the SCO, the G20, the Council of Europe, the APEC, the OSCE, the IIB and the WTO, as well as the leading member of the CIS, the CSTO, and the EAEU.

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Cathedral of the Annuciation (1560-84), interior, view east toward icon screen (late 17th century), Sol'vychegodsk, Russia

Cathedral of the Annuciation (1560-84), interior, view east toward ico...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: solv006. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Die erste Figur darinnen der Scharmützel dess Bayrischen Volcks mit dem Feind beym Brückl. und der Böheimb retirata gegen ihren auffgeworffnen Schantzen zusehen Joan. Sadeler fecit

Die erste Figur darinnen der Scharmützel dess Bayrischen Volcks mit de...

Print shows birds-eye view of the skirmish between forces of the Holy Roman Empire, Bavaria and Bohemia in a valley along a small river and swamp with troops in formation on opposite sides of a bridge. Troops i... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, view south, with ceramic ornament and frescoes (1715-16), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, view s...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro022. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, north gallery, view east, with frescoes and ceramic ornament (1715-16), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, north gallery, view ...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro032. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, north gallery, view east, with frescoes and ceramic ornament (1715-16), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, north gallery, view ...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro031. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, south corner, with frescoes including Last Judgement (1715-16), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, south ...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro024. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, central dome, with image of Christ Ruler of All (1680-1681), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, central dome, with i...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro037. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, Chapel of the Deposition of the Robe, view east with icon screen, Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, Chapel of the Deposi...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro044. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, with ceramic ornament and fresco of Christ bound by Roman soldiers (1715-16), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, with c...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro027. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, with ceramic ornament and fresco of Christ bound by Roman soldiers (1715-16), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, with c...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro028. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west ceiling vaults, with frescoes of scenes from the life of Christ including the Ascension (1680-81), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west ceiling vaults,...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro039. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, with frescoes of scenes from the final days of Christ in Jerusalem (1715-16), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, with f...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro029. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, fresco of the Last Judgement (1715-16), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, fresco...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro025. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, south wall, with frescoes of scenes from the life of the Prophet Elisha, disciple of the Prophet Elijah, (1680-81), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, south wall, with fre...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro042. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, view east, with upper part of icon screen and frescoes (1680-81), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, view east, with uppe...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro035. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, ceiling vaults with fresco of the Drowning of Pharoah's Army (1715-16), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, ceilin...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro030. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, with ceramic ornament and fresco of Last Judgement, the weighing of souls (1715-16), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west gallery, with c...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro026. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, southeast corner, with icon screen and frescoes (1680-81), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, southeast corner, wi...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro043. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, Chapel of the Deposition of the Robe, southwest corner with frescoes (1715-16), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, Chapel of the Deposi...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro045. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, north gallery, ceiling vaults, with frescoes of Noah's Ark (1715-16), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, north gallery, ceili...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro033. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west wall, with frescoes of scenes from the life of Christ (1680-81), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, west wall, with fres...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro038. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, north gallery, ceiling vaults, with frescoes of Noah's Ark (1715-16), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, north gallery, ceili...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro034. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of the Ascension (1648-49, 1670s, 1742), interior, upper tier of icon screen, Velikii Ustiug, Russia

Church of the Ascension (1648-49, 1670s, 1742), interior, upper tier o...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: veli015. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of the Ascension (1648-49, 1670s, 1742), interior, east wall and icon screen, Velikii Ustiug, Russia

Church of the Ascension (1648-49, 1670s, 1742), interior, east wall an...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: veli014. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Archangel Michael Monastery, Archangel Cathedral (1653-56), interior, with icon screen, Velikii Ustiug, Russia

Archangel Michael Monastery, Archangel Cathedral (1653-56), interior, ...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: veli019. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Archangel Michael Monastery, Archangel Cathedral (1653-56), interior, east view, with main dome and upper tier of icon screen, (late 18th century), Velikii Ustiug, Russia

Archangel Michael Monastery, Archangel Cathedral (1653-56), interior, ...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: veli018. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Saint Nicholas Mokryi (1665-72), interior, main dome, with fresco of Christ Ruler of All (1672), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Saint Nicholas Mokryi (1665-72), interior, main dome, with f...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro056. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Saint Nicholas Mokryi (1665-72), interior, south wall, including frescoes depicting Ecumenical Councils (1672), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Saint Nicholas Mokryi (1665-72), interior, south wall, inclu...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro059. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Saint Nicholas Mokryi (1665-72), interior, ceiling vaults and west piers, with frescoes (1672), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Saint Nicholas Mokryi (1665-72), interior, ceiling vaults an...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro055. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of Saint Nicholas Mokryi (1665-72), interior, view east with remnants of icon screen and frescoes (1672), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Saint Nicholas Mokryi (1665-72), interior, view east with re...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro054. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Cathedral of the Transfiguration (1668-70s), interior, icon screen, Belozersk, Russia

Cathedral of the Transfiguration (1668-70s), interior, icon screen, Be...

Number assigned by photographer: belo003. Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, central dome and northwest pier, with frescoes (1694-95), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, central d...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro079. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, south wall, with frescoes of Crucifixion and scenes from life of John the Baptist (1694-95), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, south wal...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro082. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, icon screen and view of north wall frescoes (1694-95), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, icon scre...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro078. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, west gallery frescoes of Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane (1694-95), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, west gall...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro076. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, view east, with icon screen and frescoes (1694-95), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, view east...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro077. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, south gallery frescoes on ceiling vault (1694-95), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, south gal...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro074. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, northwest pier, north and west walls, with frescoes (1694-95), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, northwest...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro080. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, northwest corner with frescoes (1694-95), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, northwest...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro081. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, corner of south and west galleries with scenes from the life of Christ (1694-95), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, corner of...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro073. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, west gallery frescoes (1694-95, 1700), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of John the Baptist at Tolchkovo (1671-87), interior, west gall...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro075. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

La Russie Noire ou Polonaise : qui comprend les provinces de la Russie Noire de Volhynie et de Podolie divisées en leurs palatinats : vulgairement connües sous le nom d'Vkraine ou Pays de Cosaques /

La Russie Noire ou Polonaise : qui comprend les provinces de la Russie...

Relief shown pictorially. Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. Includes legend titled "Remarques" and 9 bar scales. LC copy annotated in ink, laminated, and mounted on clot... More

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, southwest corner with frescoes (1680-81), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647-50), interior, southwest corner wit...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro040. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of the Epiphany (1684-93), interior, south wall with frescoes of scenes from the life of Christ (1692-93), Yaroslavl', Russia

Church of the Epiphany (1684-93), interior, south wall with frescoes o...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: yaro089. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Dormition-Trifonov Monastery, Cathedral of the Dormition (1684-89), interior, east view with iconostasis (18th century), Viatka, Russia

Dormition-Trifonov Monastery, Cathedral of the Dormition (1684-89), in...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: viat004. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More

Church of the Epiphany (1687-95), interior, east view with icon screen, Solikamsk, Russia

Church of the Epiphany (1687-95), interior, east view with icon screen...

Title, date, and place from photographer's inventory. Number assigned by photographer: soli008. Credit line: Brumfield photograph collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. General inform... More