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Japanese Americans at Manzanar and Tule Lake

Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941, led the United States into World War II and radically changed the lives of 120,000 men, women, and children of Japanese ancestry living in the United States. The attack intensified racial prejudices and led to fear of potential sabotage and espionage by Japanese Americans among some in the government, military, news media, and public.
In February, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 authorizing the Secretary of War to establish Military Areas and to remove from those areas anyone who might threaten the war effort. Without due process, the government gave everyone of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast only days to decide what to do with their houses, farms, businesses, and other possessions. Most families sold their belongings at a significant loss. Some rented their properties to neighbors. Others left possessions with friends or religious groups. Some abandoned their property. They did not know where they were going or for how long.
Each family was assigned an identification number and loaded into cars, buses, trucks, and trains, taking only what they could carry. Japanese Americans were transported under military guard to 17 temporary assembly centers located at racetracks, fairgrounds, and similar facilities in Washington, Oregon, California, and Arizona. Then they were moved to one of 10 hastily built relocation centers including Manzazar and Tule Lake Relocation Center. By November, 1942, the relocation was complete.
Read more: https://www.nps.gov/manz/learn/historyculture/japanese-americans-at-manzanar.htm
Relocation departure, Manzanar Relocation Center / photograph by Ansel Adams.
1934
1934
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2011
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2011
612 Media in collectionpage 1 of 7
Japanese-American camp, war emergency evacuation,[Tule Lake Relocation Center, Newell, Calif.]

Japanese-American camp, war emergency evacuation,[Tule Lake Relocation...

Photo shows eight women standing in front of a camp barber shop.

Japanese-American camp, war emergency relocation, [Tule Lake Relocation Center, Newell, Calif.]

Japanese-American camp, war emergency relocation, [Tule Lake Relocatio...

Photograph shows overview of camp with Abalone Mountain in the distance.

[Mother and three children on train from Los Angeles to Manzanar]

[Mother and three children on train from Los Angeles to Manzanar]

Relocation of Japanese-Americans, California.

Manzanar, Calif., April 1942. Mealtime at the Japanese war relocation center

Manzanar, Calif., April 1942. Mealtime at the Japanese war relocation ...

Photograph showing several generations of Japanese Americans at meal time.

[Family upon arrival at Manzanar]

[Family upon arrival at Manzanar]

Relocation of Japanese-Americans. California. (Same family as in LC-USZ62-43695).

Hidimi Tayenaka (woodworker), Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Hidimi Tayenaka (woodworker), Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Hidimi Tayenaka, standing, facing left, pushing a piece of wood through the planer.

Katsumi Yoshimura, 3 of 3, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Katsumi Yoshimura, 3 of 3, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Katsumi Yoshimura, bust portrait, facing left.

Benji Iguchi, tractor driver (portrait) Manzanar Relocation Center, California
Catherine Natsuko Yamaguchi, nurse, 4 of 4, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Catherine Natsuko Yamaguchi, nurse, 4 of 4, Manzanar Relocation Center...

Catherine Natsuko Yamaguchi, bust portrait, facing front.

Cattle in South Farm, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Cattle in South Farm, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Cattle graze in field, mountains in the background.

Benji Iguchi, tractor driver (portrait) Manzanar Relocation Center, California
Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi and patient Tom Kano. Others: George Nakano, Keiko Kamahara, Fuimi Tashima

Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi and patient Tom Kano. Others: George Nakano, Keik...

Nurse standing behind man in wheelchair with young man talking to two young women in foreground.

Bridge game, Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi, Nurse Chiye Yamanaki, Miss Catherine Yamaguchi, Miss Kazoko Nagahama, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Bridge game, Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi, Nurse Chiye Yamanaki, Miss Catherin...

Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi and friends seated around a table playing bridge.

Bridge game, Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi, Nurse Chiye Yamanaki, Miss Catherine Yamaguchi, Miss Kazoko Nagahama, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Bridge game, Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi, Nurse Chiye Yamanaki, Miss Catherin...

Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi and friends seated around a table playing bridge.

Henry Hanawa, mechanic, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Henry Hanawa, mechanic, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Henry Hanawa, bust portrait, facing front.

Henry Hanawa, mechanic, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Henry Hanawa, mechanic, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Henry Hanawa, bust portrait, facing front.

Ryobe Nojima, farmer, 2 of 2, Manzanar Relocation Center, California
Benji Iguchi, tractor driver (portrait) Manzanar Relocation Center, California
Roy Takano [i.e., Takeno] at town hall meeting, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Roy Takano [i.e., Takeno] at town hall meeting, Manzanar Relocation Ce...

Roy Takeno, full-length portrait, standing, behind a table addressing a group with an American flag on the wall behind him.

Benji Iguchi and Harry [i.e., Henry] Hanawa, tractor repair, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Benji Iguchi and Harry [i.e., Henry] Hanawa, tractor repair, Manzanar ...

Mechanic repairs tractor engine while driver looks on, pick-up truck and automobile in the background.

Catherine Natsuko Yamaguchi, nurse, Manzanar, 2 of 4, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Catherine Natsuko Yamaguchi, nurse, Manzanar, 2 of 4, Manzanar Relocat...

Catherine Natsuko Yamaguchi, bust portrait, facing front.

Catherine Natsuko Yamaguchi, nurse, 3 of 4, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Catherine Natsuko Yamaguchi, nurse, 3 of 4, Manzanar Relocation Center...

Catherine Natsuko Yamaguchi, bust portrait, facing front.

Bert K. Miura (pattern making)

Bert K. Miura (pattern making)

Bert K. Miura, half-length portrait, standing, looking down, placing pattern on fabric.

Bert K. Miura and Toshiko Kadonada, bundling and shipping, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Bert K. Miura and Toshiko Kadonada, bundling and shipping, Manzanar Re...

Bert K. Miura, seated on table with bundles of clothing, holding paper and pencil, with Toshiko Kadonada, folding clothing in front of him.

Henry Hanawa, mechanic, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Henry Hanawa, mechanic, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Henry Hanawa, bust portrait, facing front.

Corporal Jimmie Shohara has two ribbons: Good Behavior pre-Pearl Harbor, Rifle and Pistol Citations, 2 of 2, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Corporal Jimmie Shohara has two ribbons: Good Behavior pre-Pearl Harbo...

Corporal Jimmie Shohara, bust portrait, facing front.

Katsumi Yoshimura, 2 of 3, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Katsumi Yoshimura, 2 of 3, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Katsumi Yoshimura, bust portrait, facing left.

Benji Iguchi, tractor driver (portrait) Manzanar Relocation Center, California
Henry Hanawa, mechanic, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Henry Hanawa, mechanic, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Henry Hanawa, bust portrait, facing front.

Roy Takeno (Editor) and group reading Manzanar paper [i.e. Los Angeles Times] in front of office, Yuichi Hirata, Nabuo Samamura, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Roy Takeno (Editor) and group reading Manzanar paper [i.e. Los Angeles...

Three men, two reading newspapers, standing in front of Office of Reports, Free Press.

Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi and patient Tom Kano. Others: George Nakano, Keiko Kamahara, Fuimi Tashima

Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi and patient Tom Kano. Others: George Nakano, Keik...

Nurse standing behind man in wheelchair with young man talking to two young women in foreground.

Akio Matsumoto, commercial artist

Akio Matsumoto, commercial artist

Akio Matsumoto, half-length portrait, seated at desk, facing front, painting sign.

Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi and patient Tom Kano. Others: George Nakano, Keiko Kamahara

Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi and patient Tom Kano. Others: George Nakano, Keik...

Nurse standing behind man in wheelchair with young man talking to two young women in foreground.

Tractor repair: Driver Benji Iguchi, Mechanic Henry Hanawa, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Tractor repair: Driver Benji Iguchi, Mechanic Henry Hanawa, Manzanar R...

Mechanic repairs tractor engine while driver looks on, tool box in the foreground, pick-up truck in the background.

Bridge game, Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi, Nurse Chiye Yamanaki, Miss Catherine Yamaguchi, Miss Kazoko Nagahama, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Bridge game, Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi, Nurse Chiye Yamanaki, Miss Catherin...

Nurse Aiko Hamaguchi and friends seated around a table playing bridge.

Sumiko Shigematsu, foreman of power sewing machine girls, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Sumiko Shigematsu, foreman of power sewing machine girls, Manzanar Rel...

Sumiko Shigematsu, standing at left, looking at row of women seated at sewing machines.

Tractor repair: Driver Benji Iguchi, Mechanic Henry Hanawa, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Tractor repair: Driver Benji Iguchi, Mechanic Henry Hanawa, Manzanar R...

Mechanic repairs tractor engine while driver looks on, tool box in the foreground, pick-up truck in the background.

Roy Takano [i.e., Takeno] at town hall meeting, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Roy Takano [i.e., Takeno] at town hall meeting, Manzanar Relocation Ce...

Roy Takeno, full-length portrait, standing behind a table, addressing a group with an American flag on the wall behind him.

Manzanar from Guard Tower, view west (Sierra Nevada in background), Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Manzanar from Guard Tower, view west (Sierra Nevada in background), Ma...

Bird's-eye view of center grounds showing buildings, roads and mountains in background.

Henry Hanawa, mechanic, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Henry Hanawa, mechanic, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Henry Hanawa, bust portrait, facing front.

Line crew at work in Manzanar

Line crew at work in Manzanar

Electric line repair crew at work on electric pole next to building.

Tractor repair: Driver Benji Iguchi, Mechanic Henry Hanawa, Manzanar Relocation Center, California

Tractor repair: Driver Benji Iguchi, Mechanic Henry Hanawa, Manzanar R...

Mechanic repairs tractor engine while driver looks on, pick-up truck and automobile in the background.

Japanese-American U.S. Naval cadet nurse, Kay Fukuda, Manzanar Series / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Japanese-American U.S. Naval cadet nurse, Kay Fukuda, Manzanar Series ...

Kay Fukuda, three-quarter length portrait, standing, facing front, in military uniform.

Japanese-American U.S. Naval cadet nurse, Kay Fukuda, Manzanar Series / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Japanese-American U.S. Naval cadet nurse, Kay Fukuda, Manzanar Series ...

Kay Fukuda, three-quarter length portrait, standing, facing front, in military uniform.

Girl and volley ball, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Girl and volley ball, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photogr...

Young girl, half-length portrait, standing, facing slightly left, holding a volley ball with both hands.

Girl and volley ball, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Girl and volley ball, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photogr...

Young girl, half-length portrait, standing, facing slightly left, holding a volley ball with both hands.

Education week sign / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Education week sign / photograph by Ansel Adams.

A woman prepares a sign promoting American Education Week by attaching it to the wall of the Education Department office.

Education week sign / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Education week sign / photograph by Ansel Adams.

A woman prepares a sign promoting American Education Week by attaching it to the wall of the Education Department office.

Calesthenics [sic] / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Calesthenics [sic] / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Group of girls standing in line formation, each one reaching both of her arms straight out to the side.

Calesthenics [sic] / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Calesthenics [sic] / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Group of girls standing in line formation, each one reaching both of her arms straight out to the side.

Roy Takeno, editor / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Roy Takeno, editor / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Roy Takeno, bust portrait, facing front.

Roy Takeno, editor / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Roy Takeno, editor / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Roy Takeno, bust portrait, facing front.

Young girl smiling (Oriental type) / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Young girl smiling (Oriental type) / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Japanese American girl, half-length portrait, standing, facing left.

Young girl smiling (Oriental type) / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Young girl smiling (Oriental type) / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Japanese American girl, half-length portrait, standing, facing left.

Tom Kobayashi, landscape, south fields, Manzanar Relocation Center / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Tom Kobayashi, landscape, south fields, Manzanar Relocation Center / p...

Tom Kobayashi, half-length portrait, facing right with mountains in the background.

Tom Kobayashi, landscape, south fields, Manzanar Relocation Center / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Tom Kobayashi, landscape, south fields, Manzanar Relocation Center / p...

Tom Kobayashi, half-length portrait, facing right with mountains in the background.

Girl and volley ball / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Girl and volley ball / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Young girl, half-length portrait, standing, facing front, holding a volley ball with both hands.

Girl and volley ball / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Girl and volley ball / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Young girl, half-length portrait, standing, facing front, holding a volley ball with both hands.

Children at Sunday school class, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Children at Sunday school class, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Manzanar from guard tower, summer heat, view SW, Manzanar Relocation Center / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Manzanar from guard tower, summer heat, view SW, Manzanar Relocation C...

Buildings and connecting roadways, mountain range in background.

Manzanar from guard tower, summer heat, view SW, Manzanar Relocation Center / photograph by Ansel Adams.

Manzanar from guard tower, summer heat, view SW, Manzanar Relocation C...

Buildings and connecting roadways, mountain range in background.