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Phenakistoscope, Zoetrope

In 1832, Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau and his sons introduced the phenakistoscope ("spindle viewer"). It was also invented independently in the same year by Simon von Stampfer of Vienna, Austria, who called his invention a stroboscope.
The phenakistoscope consisted of two discs mounted on the same axis. The first disc had slots around the edge, and the second contained drawings of successive action, drawn around the disc in concentric circles. Unlike Faraday's Wheel, whose pair of discs spun in opposite directions, a phenakistoscope's discs spin together in the same direction. When viewed in a mirror through the first disc's slots, the pictures on the second disc will appear to move.
After going to market, the phenakistoscope received other names, including Phantasmascope and Fantoscope (and phenakistiscope in Britain and many other countries). It was quite successful for two years until William George Horner invented the zoetrope, which offered two improvements on the phenakistoscope. First, the zoetrope did not require a viewing mirror. The second and most influential improvement was that more than one person could view the moving pictures at the same time.
Politeness
1832
1832
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1892
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1892
20 Media in collectionpage 1 of 1
Politeness

Politeness

Optical illusion disc which is spun displaying the illusion of motion of a man bowing and a woman curtsying to each other in a circle at the outer edge of the disc. Published in: McLean's optical illusions; or ... more

[Optical illusion disc with somersaults and horseback riding]

[Optical illusion disc with somersaults and horseback riding]

The disc is spun displaying the illusion of motion of a figure doing somersaults in a circle at the center of the disc and a man horseback riding in a circle at the outer edge of the disc. Published in: McLean'... more

The desert
The bogle

The bogle

Optical illusion disc which is spun displaying the illusion of motion of a couple on a seesaw in a circle at the center of the disc and a man with an ax attempting to chop a lizard in a circle at the outer edge... more

[Optical illusion disc with man pumping water]

[Optical illusion disc with man pumping water]

The disc is spun displaying the illusion of motion of a man pumping water in a circle at the outer edge of the disc. Published in: McLean's optical illusions; or magic panorama. London, T. McLean, 1833. Exhibit... more

[Optical illusion disc with man jumping rope and a man sticking out his tongue]

[Optical illusion disc with man jumping rope and a man sticking out hi...

The disc is spun displaying the illusion of motion of a man with black-face jumping rope in a circle at the center of the disc and of a man sticking out his tongue in a circle at the outer edge of the disc. Pub... more

[Optical illusion disc with two men throwing and catching cakes and stars]

[Optical illusion disc with two men throwing and catching cakes and st...

The disc is spun displaying the illusion of motion of a man tossing cakes and stars in a circle at the center of the disc to a man seated on a box with a crown on it in a circle at the outer edge of the disc. P... more

[Optical illusion disc with a face catching a ball and a man with blackface taking a bow]

[Optical illusion disc with a face catching a ball and a man with blac...

The disc is spun displaying the illusion of motion of a face catching a ball in a circle at the center of the disc and a man with blackface taking a bow in a circle at the outer edge of the disc. Published in: ... more

Afraid of nobody

Afraid of nobody

Optical illusion disc which is spun displaying the illusion of motion of a bird taking off and landing in a circle at the center of the disc and of a man running away from another man in a circle at the outer e... more

The zoopraxiscope - a couple waltzing

The zoopraxiscope - a couple waltzing

Images on a disc which when spun gives the illusion of a couple dancing. 14699Y U.S. Copyright Office. Title from item. No. 35. Copyright by Eadweard Muybridge. Exhibited: "Moving Pictures : The Un-easy Relatio... more

The zoopraxiscope - a couple waltzing

The zoopraxiscope - a couple waltzing

Images on a disc which when spun gives the illusion of a couple dancing. 14699Y U.S. Copyright Office. Title from item. No. 35. Copyright by Eadweard Muybridge. Exhibited: "Moving Pictures : The Un-easy Relatio... more

The zoopraxiscope - a horse back somersault

The zoopraxiscope - a horse back somersault

Images on a disc which when spun gives the illusion of a man doing a somersault on horseback.

The zoopraxiscope - a horse back somersault

The zoopraxiscope - a horse back somersault

Images on a disc which when spun gives the illusion of a man doing a somersault on horseback.

The zoopraxiscope--Horse galloping

The zoopraxiscope--Horse galloping

Images on a disc which when spun gives the illusion of a man riding a galloping horse. 14706Y U.S. Copyright Office. Title from item. No. 42. Copyright by Eadweard Muybridge. Exhibited: "Moving Pictures : The U... more

The zoopraxiscope--Horse galloping

The zoopraxiscope--Horse galloping

Images on a disc which when spun gives the illusion of a man riding a galloping horse. 14706Y U.S. Copyright Office. Title from item. No. 42. Copyright by Eadweard Muybridge. Exhibited: "Moving Pictures : The U... more

The zoopraxiscope--Athletes--Boxing

The zoopraxiscope--Athletes--Boxing

Images on a disc which when spun gives the illusion of two men boxing. 14666Y U.S. Copyright Office. Title from item. No. 2. Copyright by Eadweard Muybridge. Exhibited: "Moving Pictures : The Un-easy Relationsh... more

The zoopraxiscope--Athletes--Boxing

The zoopraxiscope--Athletes--Boxing

Images on a disc which when spun gives the illusion of two men boxing. 14666Y U.S. Copyright Office. Title from item. No. 2. Copyright by Eadweard Muybridge. Exhibited: "Moving Pictures : The Un-easy Relationsh... more

The zoopraxiscope--Athletes--Boxing

The zoopraxiscope--Athletes--Boxing

Images on a disc which when spun gives the illusion of two men boxing. 14666Y U.S. Copyright Office. Title from item. No. 2. Copyright by Eadweard Muybridge. Exhibited: "Moving Pictures : The Un-easy Relationsh... more