Library Of Congress
Library Of CongressPublic Domain ArchivePart of PICRYL.com. Not developed or endorsed by the Library of Congress

Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is a branch of anthropology and the systematic study of individual cultures. In contrast with ethnology, ethnography explores cultural phenomena from the point of view of the subject of the study. Ethnography is also a type of social research involving the examination of the behaviour of the participants in a given social situation and understanding the group members' own interpretation of such behaviour.

As a form of inquiry, ethnography relies heavily on participant observation—on the researcher participating in the setting or with the people being studied, at least in some marginal role, and seeking to document, in detail, patterns of social interaction and the perspectives of participants, and to understand these in their local contexts. It had its origin in social and cultural anthropology in the early twentieth century, but spread to other social science disciplines, notably sociology, during the course of that century.

Ethnographers mainly use qualitative methods, though they may also employ quantitative data. The typical ethnography is a holistic study and so includes a brief history, and an analysis of the terrain, the climate, and the habitat. A wide range of group and organisation have been studied by this method, including traditional communities, youth gangs, religious cults, and organisations of various kinds. While, traditionally, ethnography has relied on the physical presence of the researcher in a setting, there is research using the label that has relied on interviews or documents, sometimes to investigate events in the past such as the NASA Challenger disaster. There is also a considerable amount of 'virtual' or online ethnography, sometimes labelled netnography or cyber-ethnography.

Ethnography Media

74,683 media by topicpage 1 of 747
Fire on the Mountain [music transcription]

Fire on the Mountain [music transcription]

Meter: 4/4 Transcribed by Alan Jabbour, from a performance by Henry Reed. Key: A Strains: 2 (high-low, 4-2) Compass: 9 Rendition: 1r-2r-1r-2r-1r-2r Title change: This tune is transcribed after the continuation ... More

The Girl I Left behind Me [music transcription]

The Girl I Left behind Me [music transcription]

Meter: 4/4 Strains: 2 (high-low, 4-4) Transcribed by Alan Jabbour, from a performance by Henry Reed. Key: G Title change: This tune is transcribed after the continuation of "Natchez [Christmas Morning]" and "F... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statements of Agency for the Mssrs Francis and John A Granger"

Alfred Beckley's Private Memorandum Book, 1856-1865, including "Statem...

The son of John Beckley, the first clerk of the House of Representatives under George Washington, Alfred Beckley is widely recognized as the founder of Raleigh County. The man for whom the county seat of Beckle... More

Group Portrait at Bar in the Auditorium Hotel, ca. 1902

Group Portrait at Bar in the Auditorium Hotel, ca. 1902

This was known as the Grotto Bar on Main Street of Paradise Valley; made by Italian stonemasons, granite pieces of the bar have been saved by members in the community People in photograph: Ramasco, Antone, pour... More

St. Alphonso's Catholic Church

St. Alphonso's Catholic Church

Built by local North Italian stone masons ca. 1905; note northern-Italian-style tower Builder: Peraldo, Guillelmo; Ramasco, Augusto

St. Alphonso's Catholic Church

St. Alphonso's Catholic Church

Built by local North Italian stone masons ca. 1905; note northern-Italian-style tower Builder: Ramasco, Augusto; Peraldo, Guillelmo

Church Plan

Church Plan

Built by Augusto Ramasco, Guillelmo Peraldo, and other local North Italian stone masons, ca. 1905

Jail Plan

Jail Plan

ca. 1905 Builder: Gambetta, Giacomo

Bunkhouse Detail

Bunkhouse Detail

Builder: Ramasco, Antone ca. 1905

Main Residence and Bunkhouse with Cellar, Bull Head Ranch
Bunkhouse with Cellar, Bull Head Ranch

Bunkhouse with Cellar, Bull Head Ranch

Builder: Ramasco, Antone ca. 1905

Family Bible

Family Bible

Source: Stewart, Leslie and Marie Christian Workers Holy Bible; includes four-generation family record of the Stock/Stewart family in Paradise Valley Maker: John Winston; Philadelphia, PA; ca. 1905

Hitching Post

Hitching Post

Maker: Peraldo, Guillelmo Post weighs about three hundred pounds, similar to granite posts made in the Piedmont region of Italy, where the stonemason's family originated, made ca. 1905

Church Plan

Church Plan

Built by Augusto Ramasco, Guillelmo Peraldo, and other local North Italian stone masons, ca. 1905

Old Jail

Old Jail

Builder: Gambetta, Giacomo Said to have been built by a Swiss-Italian, ca. 1905; the masonry portion was added later when the roof was raised

Granary, Buckingham Household

Granary, Buckingham Household

ca. 1906 Builder: Bradshaw, Hugh; Owens, George

Farm Journal, 1906

Farm Journal, 1906

Source: Boggio, Joe and Geraldine Popular magazine that found its way to the ranching frontier Maker: Wilmer Atkinson Company, Philadelphia, Pa. ca. 1906

Granary Plan, Buckingham Household

Granary Plan, Buckingham Household

ca. 1906 Builder: Bradshaw, Hugh; Owens, George

Granary Interior, Buckingham Household

Granary Interior, Buckingham Household

ca. 1906 Builder: Bradshaw, Hugh; Owens, George

The Ladies' World, ca. 1907

The Ladies' World, ca. 1907

Source: Boggio, Joe and Geraldine Popular magazine that found its way to the ranching frontier Maker: S.H. Moore Company, New York N.Y. 1907

Water Storage System Plan

Water Storage System Plan

Builder: Miller, Gerhard Jr. Provides steady water stream for cattle, ca. 1908

Posed portrait of St. John's T.A.B.S. Fife and Drum Corps, Paterson, N.J., ca. 1909.

Posed portrait of St. John's T.A.B.S. Fife and Drum Corps, Paterson, N...

Forms part of a group of images which are copies of black-and-white photos in the collection of Marie O'Neill, who lives in Totowa, NJ.

Portrait of Newlyweds, Stephen and Edith (Burge) Ferraro, ca. 1909

Portrait of Newlyweds, Stephen and Edith (Burge) Ferraro, ca. 1909

People in photograph: Ferraro, Steve; Ferraro, Edith

Thirteen young men in football uniforms, Paterson, N.J., ca. 1909.

Thirteen young men in football uniforms, Paterson, N.J., ca. 1909.

Forms part of a group of images which are copies of black-and-white photos in the collection of Marie O'Neill, who lives in Totowa, NJ.

Thirteen young men in football uniforms, Paterson, N.J., ca. 1909.

Thirteen young men in football uniforms, Paterson, N.J., ca. 1909.

Forms part of a group of images which are copies of black-and-white photos in the collection of Marie O'Neill, who lives in Totowa, NJ.

Posed portrait of St. John's T.A.B.S. Fife and Drum Corps, Paterson, N.J., ca. 1909.

Posed portrait of St. John's T.A.B.S. Fife and Drum Corps, Paterson, N...

Forms part of a group of images which are copies of black-and-white photos in the collection of Marie O'Neill, who lives in Totowa, NJ.

Thirteen young men in football uniforms, Paterson, N.J., ca. 1909.

Thirteen young men in football uniforms, Paterson, N.J., ca. 1909.

Forms part of a group of images which are copies of black-and-white photos in the collection of Marie O'Neill, who lives in Totowa, NJ.

Bunkhouse, Dutch Fred (Flat) Mine

Bunkhouse, Dutch Fred (Flat) Mine

Built into hillside, frame pantry attached, built ca. 1910

Bunkhouse Plan, Dutch Fred (Flat) Mine

Bunkhouse Plan, Dutch Fred (Flat) Mine

Built into hillside; frame pantry attached, ca. 1910

Interior Main Floor of Barn

Interior Main Floor of Barn

Builder: Ramasco, Antone ca. 1910

House, Bridge House and Barn

House, Bridge House and Barn

Builder: Ramasco, Antone Rear addition to house is granite cellar, ca. 1910

House, Rinehart Place
Support Framing under Barn

Support Framing under Barn

Builder: Ramasco, Antone Granite foundation, built ca. 1910

Barn, ca. 1910

Barn, ca. 1910

Builder: Ramasco, Antone ca. 1910

House, Rinehart Place
House Plan, Rinehart Place

House Plan, Rinehart Place

Second floor plan, ca. 1910

House Plan, Rinehart Place

House Plan, Rinehart Place

First floor plan, ca. 1910; "Gothic Revival" frame

Chimney

Chimney

Builder: Ramasco, Antone ca. 1910

Door of Barn

Door of Barn

Builder: Ramasco, Antone ca. 1910

House Plan, Bridge House and Barn

House Plan, Bridge House and Barn

Builder: Ramasco, Antone Hotel and boarding house for Basque sheepherders during the shearing and dipping season, ca. 1910

Chicken House, Cassinelli (Mill) Ranch

Chicken House, Cassinelli (Mill) Ranch

Currently used for hogs, originally made ca. 1910

Barn Plan, built ca. 1910

Barn Plan, built ca. 1910

Builder: Ramasco, Antone Main floor plan (top), Basement floor plan (bottom), stabled race horses during racing weekends in Paradise Valley, ca. 1910

Dovecote on Side of Barn

Dovecote on Side of Barn

Builder: Ramasco, Antone ca. 1910

Cellar Plan, Cerri (Wallace) Ranch

Cellar Plan, Cerri (Wallace) Ranch

ca. 1910; For wine storage Builder: Cerri, Giovanni; Ramasco, Antone

Second Floor Plan, Stock-Stewart Residence, Ninety-Six Ranch

Second Floor Plan, Stock-Stewart Residence, Ninety-Six Ranch

Second-floor plan, former Stock-Stewart residence, ca. 1910

Steps at Back of Barn

Steps at Back of Barn

Builder: Ramasco, Antone ca. 1910

Bunkhouse Plan (top); Chicken House Plan (bottom)

Bunkhouse Plan (top); Chicken House Plan (bottom)

Currently used as a tack room and stable, originally built in 1897 (top); Currently used for hogs, ca. 1910 (bottom) Builder: Recanzone, Lorenzo

Stonework under Barn

Stonework under Barn

Builder: Ramasco, Antone Granite foundation, built ca. 1910

Paiute Indian, "Long Charlie," on Horseback, ca. 1910
Front of black-and-white photo postcard of "Children's Day Nursery, Paterson, N.J." ; ca. 1910.

Front of black-and-white photo postcard of "Children's Day Nursery, Pa...

The school featured in this postcard is now Memorial Day Nursery.

House, Bridge House and Barn

House, Bridge House and Barn

Builder: Ramasco, Antone Boarding house for Basque sheepherders during the shearing and dipping season, built ca. 1910

Brown Oval Bottle

Brown Oval Bottle

Source: Boggio, Joe and Geraldine Two-mold glass bottles, glass stopper with cork, ca. 1910 Maker: Roth & Co., San Francisco, California

Bottles

Bottles

Two-mold glass bottles, ca. 1910 Source: Boggio, Joe and Geraldine

Bunkhouse Interior, Dutch Fred (Flat) Mine

Bunkhouse Interior, Dutch Fred (Flat) Mine

Interior, built into hillside, ca. 1910

House Plan, North Fork Ranch

House Plan, North Fork Ranch

Builder: Ramasco, Antone Granite foundation, ca. 1911

Indian Massacre, ca. 1911

Indian Massacre, ca. 1911

Bodies found at Indian massacre

Ranch House with Smokehouse

Ranch House with Smokehouse

Builder: Ramasco, Antone Hipped-roof granite ranch house with smokehouse to the right, ca. 1911

Portrait of "Coyote" John Schneider and Ed Recanzone at the Mill Ranch, ca. 1911

Portrait of "Coyote" John Schneider and Ed Recanzone at the Mill Ranch...

Now the Bob Cassinelli Ranch People in photograph: Schneider, "Coyote" John; Recanzone, Ed

Man at Spring City Mine, ca. 1911

Man at Spring City Mine, ca. 1911

People in photograph: Dooley, John; Buckingham, Frank

Case's General Store, ca. 1912

Case's General Store, ca. 1912

People in photograph: Unidentified; Unidentified; Lye, Ed; Case, Irvin; Case, Irvin; Unidentified; Dooley, John

Photograph of Captain Pearl R. Nye in Akron, OH.

Photograph of Captain Pearl R. Nye in Akron, OH.

The handwritten note was attached to the photograph. Note on back says " This is printed wrong side too. The large bldgs. are B.F. Goodrich Co."

Postcard of Paiute Indians, ca. 1914

Postcard of Paiute Indians, ca. 1914

Postcard with inscription: "Typical Camp Scene" People in photograph: Unidentified; Abel, "Big Merry"

Paiute Indian Girls, ca. 1914

Paiute Indian Girls, ca. 1914

People in photograph: Abel, Lou; Abel, Eva

Horse-Drawn Fruit Sprayer

Horse-Drawn Fruit Sprayer

ca. 1914 Maker: Bean Spray Pump Company, San Jose, California

Library Of Congress

The objects in this archive are from Library of Congress - the nation’s first established cultural institution and the largest library in the world, with millions of items including books, recordings, photographs, maps and manuscripts in its collections. The Library provides Congress, the federal government and the American people with a rich, diverse and enduring source of knowledge to inform, inspire and engage them and support their intellectual and creative endeavors.

Disclaimer: A work of the Library of Congress is "a work prepared by an officer or employee" of the federal government "as part of that person's official duties." In general, under section 105 of the Copyright Act, such works are not entitled to domestic copyright protection under U.S. law and are therefore in the public domain. This website is developed as a part of the world's largest public domain archive, PICRYL.com, and not developed or endorsed by the Library of Congress,  https://www.picryl.com

Developed by GetArchive, 2015-2021