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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material – a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It also conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, and the roots. Wood may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber.

Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel, as a construction material, for making tools and weapons, furniture and paper. More recently it emerged as a feedstock for the production of purified cellulose and its derivatives, such as cellophane and cellulose acetate.

As of 2005, the growing stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters, 47% of which was commercial. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy. In 1991 approximately 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for furniture and building construction.

Wood Media

3,036 media by topicpage 1 of 31
[Seven horses in a wood] / Baldung, 1534.

[Seven horses in a wood] / Baldung, 1534.

Title from shelflist card. Signed and dated on block. Bartsch, 56. LC purchase, 1158.

[Men chopping wood, damming stream, and washing ore demonstrate a sluicing method for obtaining stones from which tin is made]

[Men chopping wood, damming stream, and washing ore demonstrate a slui...

Illus. and text in: De re metallica / Georg Agricola. Basileae : [Apud H. Frobenium et N. Episcopium], 1556, p. 270. Published in: The tradition of science / Leonard C. Bruno. Washington, D.C. : Library of Cong... More

[A man operating a lathe with fixed cutting tool driven by the action of weights; here the machine is cutting screw threads in wood]

[A man operating a lathe with fixed cutting tool driven by the action ...

Title from item. Title devised by Library staff. Illus. in: Theatrvm instrvmentorvm et machinarum / Jacques Besson. Lvgdvni : Apud B. Vincentium, 1578. Published in: The tradition of technology : Landmarks of W... More

Title page, with no illus., in William Wood, Nevv Englands prospect, London, by T. Cotes for J. Bellamie, 1634

Title page, with no illus., in William Wood, Nevv Englands prospect, L...

Illus. in: William Wood, Nevv Englands prospect, London, by T. Cotes for J. Bellamie, 1634. No file print. This record contains unverified, old data from caption card. Caption card tracings: Indian tribes Mass.... More

[Title page of "A Feast for Wormes" 1642 [Jonah] by Francis Quarles, and wood engraving portrait of the author]

[Title page of "A Feast for Wormes" 1642 [Jonah] by Francis Quarles, a...

Head and shoulders, right profile. Illus. in: A Feast for Wormes, opp. title page This record contains unverified, old data from caption card. Ref. copy in Biog. File. Caption card tracings: RBD; BI Works; BI; Shelf.

[Plat of a survey of 2,314 acres of land, being the first large bottom on the east side of the Ohio River, 3 or 4 miles below the mouth, a portion of which is divided into 17 lots]

[Plat of a survey of 2,314 acres of land, being the first large bottom...

Scale ca. 1:20,000. Title from Lawrence Martin's The George Washington atlas. 1932. Cover title: George Washington; survey of land in Ohio, a grant from the Colony of Virginia to Washington for military service... More

Cambridge, 21st August, 1775. Wanted for the Continental army. One million of bricks. Three thousand cords of fire wood. Two hundred thousand and bushels of charcoal. One hundred and fifty tons of English hay. Twelve hundred bushels of Indian co

Cambridge, 21st August, 1775. Wanted for the Continental army. One mil...

Positive Photostat.; Not in Evans.; Not in Ford.; Stamped on verso: 452. Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. 2 duplicate copi... More

In the House of representatives. December 2, 1775. Whereas the supply of the article of wood for the Cambridge and Roxbury camps, hath not been hitherto fully sufficient to answer the demands, notwithstanding the exertions of this court for that

In the House of representatives. December 2, 1775. Whereas the supply ...

Positive Photostat.; Not in Ford.; Stamped on verso: 504. Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. 2 duplicate copies Printed Ephe... More

Guerritte, a fort or small tower of stone or wood, on the point of a bastion, or on the angles of the shoulder, to hold a sentry

Guerritte, a fort or small tower of stone or wood, on the point of a b...

Print shows a guérite on the corner of a fort. Title from item. Illus. in: A new military, historical, and explanatory dictionary ... / Thomas Simes. Philadelphia : Sold by Humphreys, Bell, and Aitken, 1776. Pu... More

[Arms] By order of His Excellency Sir William, Howe, K.B. General and Commander in Chief &c. &c. Proclamation [Enjoining the cutting of wood south of the city, as necessary for the use of the British soldiers] Given under my hand at Philadelphia

[Arms] By order of His Excellency Sir William, Howe, K.B. General and ...

Evans 15818 Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 145, Folder 14.

Thomas Jefferson to Basil Wood, September 10, 1792
Thomas Jefferson to James Wood, July 17, 1793
Thomas Jefferson to James Wood, July 17, 1793
Thomas Jefferson to James Wood, March 31, 1797
[Wood hornbook] [realia]

[Wood hornbook] [realia]

Title supplied by cataloger. An eighteenth-century hornbook, possibly American, with alphabet in lower and uppercases, followed by vowels, ligatures, and the Lord's prayer. Paper text covered with translucent ... More

Map of a portion of Missionary Ridge, illustrating the positions of Baird's & Wood's div's., Nov. 23, 24 and 25, 1863.

Map of a portion of Missionary Ridge, illustrating the positions of Ba...

Scale ca. 1:11,800. LC Civil War Maps (2nd ed.), 398 Shows topography by contours, drainage, roads, railroads, and dwellings with names of inhabitants. Names of corps and commanding officers are given. Arrows i... More

Remarks on the slave-trade ... Printed and sold by Samuel Wood, No. 362 Pearl-Street [1807].
Ariel Wood to Elbridge Gerry, September 13, 1813.

Ariel Wood to Elbridge Gerry, September 13, 1813.

Transcripts, guides, and tools to help you use this collection may be found at http://www.loc.gov/collection/james-madison-papers/about-this-collection/.

New York from Fort Wood

New York from Fort Wood

Drawing shows a panoramic view of New York from Bedloe's Island. A group of people in a boat row away from the island into the harbor. (DLC/PP-1995:140.269) Philadelphia Print Shop Inventory no. 269. Title fro... More

Major Genl. Winfield Scott / Wood pinxt. ; Edwin sc.

Major Genl. Winfield Scott / Wood pinxt. ; Edwin sc.

Print shows Winfield Scott, half-length portrait, facing slightly right, holding sword at right side, left hand in coat, wearing military uniform. Winfield Scott was stationed in Buffalo during the invasion of ... More

Major Genl. Brown U.S. Army / J. Wood pinx. ; Gimbrede sc.

Major Genl. Brown U.S. Army / J. Wood pinx. ; Gimbrede sc.

Print shows Jacob Jennings Brown, half-length portrait, facing slightly left, wearing military uniform. Title from item. Illus. from: Historical sketches of the late war, between the United States and Great Bri... More

[Balloon with open frame wood or metal basket and attached propellers]

[Balloon with open frame wood or metal basket and attached propellers]

Title devised by Library staff. Tissandier collection.

A map of the estate of Peter Langford Brooke, Esq., called the Wood situated in the Parish of St. John's, Antigua /

A map of the estate of Peter Langford Brooke, Esq., called the Wood si...

Includes indexes and statistical data. Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. Vault Acquisitions control no. 2000-18

A ground plan of the works and buildings on the Wood Estate of Peter Langford Brooke, Esq., situated in the Parish of St. John's, Antigua /

A ground plan of the works and buildings on the Wood Estate of Peter L...

Includes index, 2 insets, and col. coat of arms. Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. Vault Acquisitions control no. 2000-23

William Blake - [Four wood engravings illustrating Ambrose Phillips' Imitation of eclogue]

William Blake - [Four wood engravings illustrating Ambrose Phillips' I...

Illustrations showing pastoral scenes. Illus. in: The pastorals of Virgil, with..., / Publius Vergilius Maro. 1821, vol. 2., p. 15.

William Blake - [Four wood engravings illustrating Ambrose Phillips' Imitation of eclogue]

William Blake - [Four wood engravings illustrating Ambrose Phillips' I...

Illustrations showing pastoral scenes. Illus. in: The pastorals of Virgil, with..., / Publius Vergilius Maro. 1821, vol. 2., p. 16.

Thomas Jefferson to Rice W. Wood, March 4, 1826
Summer or Wood Duck

Summer or Wood Duck

Color engraving by R. Havell, after drawing by John J. Audubon. Illus. in: Elephant Folio, Vol. III, Pl. 206. This record contains unverified, old data from caption card.

To the public. It will be recollected, that in a publication which I felt it my duty to make on the 9th of April last, in relation to the punishment of John Wood, I spoke of Doctor James L. Armstrong, the reputed author of "A Tennessean," as "an

To the public. It will be recollected, that in a publication which I f...

Imprint 2. Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 174, Folder 14.

Statement of facts in relation to a bargain between Thomas Herbert and Fielder B. Poston, with respect to the appointment of Wood Measurer for the first Ward ... F. B. Poston. Washington, D. C. June 2, 1832.

Statement of facts in relation to a bargain between Thomas Herbert and...

Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 194, Folder 28.

From Andrew Jackson's church. Wood of 1838. The little brick church that Gen. Jackson erected in 1723 on his Heritage farm to gratify his beloved wife was incorporated into the presbytery, and supplied by it with a minister ....
Chillum Wood. Historic map, Library of Congress

Chillum Wood. Historic map, Library of Congress

Cadastral survey map. Pen-and-ink and lead pencil. Missing small sections along edges and faced with rice paper. Includes notes and measurement data. Subtitles in ink on verso. Available also through the Librar... More

Thomas John Wood, 1845-1906

Thomas John Wood, 1845-1906

Full lgth., standing, facing right. Major General.

The seamen's ready reckoner ... Published by Henry Wood. New York. c. 1848].

The seamen's ready reckoner ... Published by Henry Wood. New York. c. ...

On verso: Filed Aug. 29, 1848; Mr. Henry Wood. Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 12... More

[Wood church with many added steeples] / R. Upjohn and son, archts.

[Wood church with many added steeples] / R. Upjohn and son, archts.

Architectural drawing showing front, back and side elevations and a plan, with changes sketched over, and measurements computed in pencil. Title from item. Gift ; Melvin A. Brosterman. Exhibited: American Treas... More

Hon. Fernando Wood of N.Y and Mayor of N.Y.
Hon. Fernando Wood of N.Y and Mayor of N.Y.
Miss Anna Wood, Glass negative photograph, American Civil War time.
Hon. Fernando Wood of N.Y., Glass negative photograph, American Civil War time.
Colonel Wood & Major Stuart Wortley on the staff of Sir Richard England

Colonel Wood & Major Stuart Wortley on the staff of Sir Richard Englan...

Three officers, one sitting and two standing, in front of stone building.

[Diploma Awarded By The American Institute. To J. & R. Lamb, For Church Furniture. The Altar, Reading Desk and Statue carvings by the above exhibitors are noble examples of carved wood work in the Gothic Style. Medal of Special Award. Exhibition of 1872 [signed] New York Nov. 20th, 1872]
To the electors of the city of New-York. The defeat of Fernando Wood at the coming election for mayor is the duty of every one who has an interest in the welfare of New-York ... [New York, Nov. 1859].

To the electors of the city of New-York. The defeat of Fernando Wood a...

Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 122, Folder 34.

[Abraham Lincoln], May 3, 1859  (Affidavit in case of Richard Wood, et al. vs. Emery C. Ross)
[John M. Wood, Representative from Maine, Thirty-fifth Congress, original signature]

[John M. Wood, Representative from Maine, Thirty-fifth Congress, origi...

Illus. in: McClees' gallery of photographic portraits of the senators, representatives & delegates of the thirty-fifth Congress... Washington: McClees & Beck, [1859], page 4. Title devised by Library staff base... More

Frederick Co. Va., from Wood's map.

Frederick Co. Va., from Wood's map.

LC Land ownership maps, 1261 Shows names of some residents. Relief shown by hachures. Date from Stephenson's Civil War Maps, 1989. Pen-and-ink and pencil, mounted on paper. LC Civil War maps (2nd ed.), H35 Avai... More

Maj. W.H. Wood, 17th U.S. Inf.
The Jersey lovers, a pathetic ballad composed by Eug. T. Johnston and sung by Bryant's, Wood's, and Campbell's Minstrels. H. De Marsan, Publisher, 54 Chatham Street, N. Y
Kindling wood man. H. De Marsan, Publisher, 38 & 60 Chatham Street, N. Y
Col. Alfred M. Wood, 84th N.Y Inf.
General Robert C. Wood, U.S.A., American Civil War Photograph, Glass Negative.
[Man, woman, and children outside earth and wood structure]
Zenas Wood to Abraham Lincoln, Monday, November 05, 1860  (Lincoln should be careful of poison in his food)
Col. Alfred M. Wood, 84th N.Y Inf.
Hon. Fernando Wood, Glass Negative, 1860s
Charles W. Alcott, successor to George Kuhn, dealer in all kins of kindling wood, cor. Ave. B & E 18th St. New York C.M. Smith

Charles W. Alcott, successor to George Kuhn, dealer in all kins of kin...

Print shows a broadside announcement that Charles W. Alcott has taken over the "Wood Yard" formerly run by George Kuhn. At center is a large warehouse with four vignettes showing the kinds of activities involve... More

T.J. Wood, American Civil War Photograph, Glass Negative.
T.J. Wood, American Civil War Photograph, Glass Negative.
No. 214. Bobbing around, around. J. Wrigley. Publisher, of Songs, Ballad's and Toy Books, Conversationage, and Small Playing Cards. Alphabet Wood Blocks, Valentines, Motto Verses, and Cut Motto Paper, &c. No. 27 Chatham Street. (Opposite City Hall Park) New York
T.J. Wood, American Civil War Photograph, Glass Negative.
Lilly Wood. H. De Marsan, Publisher, ... 54 Chatham Street, N. Y
Nelly Wood. Air: Good-bye, Allie Dear! H. De Marsan, Publisher, No. 54 Chatham Street, N. Y
Scenes in Charleston, S.C. [composite of 4 wood engravings]: Tomb of John C. Calhoun, in St. Philip's Churchyard; the old powder magazine, Cumberland Street; the Palmetto Flag; the Palmetto Cockade

Scenes in Charleston, S.C. [composite of 4 wood engravings]: Tomb of J...

Illus. in: Harper's Weekly, 1860 Nov. 24, title page. This record contains unverified, old data from caption card. Caption card tracings: Shelf.

Wood Station. 2 miles from City point. Stationary engine, sawing wood
G. B. Wood to Abraham Lincoln, Tuesday, July 03, 1860  (Support from Louisiana)
G. W. Rathbone to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, June 01, 1860  (Sends cane made from wood that Lincoln split)
Col. Alfred M. Wood, 84th N.Y Inf.
Abraham Lincoln to James Sulgrove, Eric Locke, William Wallace and John F. Wood, Monday, January 28, 1861  (Reply to invitation)
John Wood to Abraham Lincoln, Tuesday, March 05, 1861  (Recommendation)
[Soldier in Confederate uniform and Co. D, 3rd North Carolina Volunteers Regiment hat with short sword and sheath with initials J.L.W., probably for Private John L. Wood of Co. D, 3rd North Carolina Infantry Regiment]

[Soldier in Confederate uniform and Co. D, 3rd North Carolina Voluntee...

Photograph shows identified soldier. Title devised by Library staff. Formerly identified as Private James Love of Co. D, 13th North Carolina Infantry Regiment. Case: Berg, no. 2-66. Gift; Tom Liljenquist; 2014;... More

[Workers constructing a wood building] (Andrew J. Russel)
Union men! Read this before you vote. George Wilkes on Horatio Seymour ... Loyal men of New York!!! Will you endorse this programme Will you vote to permit the President of the United States to be bullied by Fernando Wood and Horatio Seymour? Ne

Union men! Read this before you vote. George Wilkes on Horatio Seymour...

Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 124, Folder 17.

Nicholas L. Wood and Sam Winde to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, June 06, 1862  (Recommendation)
Fernando Wood to Abraham Lincoln, Monday, December 08, 1862  (Cover letter)
Battery No. 1, near Yorktown, Virginia / negative by Wood & Gibson ; positive by A. Gardner.

Battery No. 1, near Yorktown, Virginia / negative by Wood & Gibson ; p...

Photograph showing the cannons used by the Union army in a battery near the York River. Illus. in: Gardner's photographic sketch book of the war / Alexander Gardner. Washington, D.C. : Philp & Solomons, [c1866... More

William D. Wood, Tuesday, December 30, 1862  (Printed General Orders)
New wood & coal yard. at No. 5. North Russell Street ... Andrew Crockett. Boston, April 5th, 1862.

New wood & coal yard. at No. 5. North Russell Street ... Andrew Crocke...

Handwritten on verso: 1862. Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio 69, Folder 7.

[Military railroad operations in northern Virginia: pieces of rail and wood chained around a tree]

[Military railroad operations in northern Virginia: pieces of rail and...

No. 55 (handwritten) and 2556 (stamped) on mount. Title devised by Library staff. Forms part of Civil War photos, military construction and transportation in Northern Virginia and elsewhere / United States Mili... More

Robert C. Wood to John G. Nicolay, Friday, June 27, 1862  (Clerical error)
Bradford R. Wood to William H. Seward, Tuesday, July 28, 1863  (Art given by Danish government)
Fernando Wood to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, February 06, 1863  (Telegram requesting permission to publish their correspondence)
Fernando Wood to Abraham Lincoln, [June 5, 1863]  (Interview)
William H. Seward to Abraham Lincoln, Wednesday, January 21, 1863  (Appointment of Bradford R. Wood as commissioner to Sandwich Islands; with Lincoln's response)
Consecration of the Roman Catholic Cathedral at Philadelphia, Nov. 20 - Bishop Wood blessing the walls / from a sketch by our special artist, F.H. Schell.

Consecration of the Roman Catholic Cathedral at Philadelphia, Nov. 20 ...

Illus. in: Harper's weekly, 1864 Dec. 17, p. 193.

Wood, Rep. Hon. Fernando of N.Y.
Wood, Hon. Alan of Pa.. Glass Plate Negative, American Civil War time.
Robert Wood's ornamental iron works, Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia / Hinckley ; printed by Henry B. Ashmead.

Robert Wood's ornamental iron works, Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia / Hinc...

Print shows an advertisement for Robert Wood's Ornamental Iron Works on "Ridge Avenue below Spring Garden Street, Philadelphia" showing cast iron statues and fountains, the "Clay Monument, at Pottsville, Pa.", ... More

A. M. Wood to Abraham Lincoln, Thursday, April 06, 1865  (Cover letter)
Payne alias Wood, alias Hall

Payne alias Wood, alias Hall

Photograph shows Lewis Payne, full-length portrait, facing right. Title from item. Reference copy in BIOG FILE.

Payne, alias Wood, alias Hall. Arrested as an associate of Booth in the conspiracy / Alexander Gardner.

Payne, alias Wood, alias Hall. Arrested as an associate of Booth in th...

Photograph shows Lewis Payne standing before a tent, full-length portrait, facing front. Title from item. Additional text on card: Entered according to Act of Congress, by Alex. Gardner, in the year 1865, in th... More

National inauguration ball, March 4th, 1865 The honor of Mrs. Joseph Wood company is requested.

National inauguration ball, March 4th, 1865 The honor of Mrs. Joseph W...

Mrs. Joseph Wood's names supplied in ink.; Inauguration.; Invitation. Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in SGML. Printed Ephemera C... More

[Two small tents, with wood frame buildings in the background]
Richard Dale, U.S.N. / engraved by R.W. Dodson from a drawing by J.B. Longacre after a portrait by J. Wood.

Richard Dale, U.S.N. / engraved by R.W. Dodson from a drawing by J.B. ...

Print shows Richard Dale, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly right, wearing military uniform. Title from item.

Payne, alias Wood, alias Hall. Arrested as an associate of Booth in the conspiracy / Alexander Gardner.

Payne, alias Wood, alias Hall. Arrested as an associate of Booth in th...

Photograph shows Lewis Payne, in handcuffs, standing before a tent, full-length portrait, facing front. Title from item. Stamped on verso: Source unknown, Nov. 28, 1949. Additional text on card: Entered accordi... More

The cruel uncle and the vetoed babes in the wood

The cruel uncle and the vetoed babes in the wood

Andrew Johnson taking two children "civil rights" and "bureau ..." by their hands in front of forest "veto wood". Illus. in: Frank Leslie's illustrated newspaper, v. 22, no. 554 (1866 May 12), p. 128.

Bark, Wood, Cones, Foliage, etc. of the Big Trees, Calaveras County

Bark, Wood, Cones, Foliage, etc. of the Big Trees, Calaveras County

The Library holds only one photo from a pair published as a stereographic view. Gems of California scenery, no. 898. LOT subdivision subject: Calaveras Big Trees. This record contains unverified old data from c... More

Residence of Dr J.H. Wood, at the Napa Soda Springs, Napa County

Residence of Dr J.H. Wood, at the Napa Soda Springs, Napa County

The Library holds only one photo from a pair published as a stereographic view. Gems of California scenery, no. 768. LOT subdivision subject: Napa County. This record contains unverified old data from caption card.

[Carved wood wall and doors, possibly an iconostasis, in the Coptic Church of Saint Barbara, Cairo]

[Carved wood wall and doors, possibly an iconostasis, in the Coptic Ch...

Bonfils. (statement of responsibility) Title devised by library staff. No known restrictions on publication in the U.S. Use elsewhere may be restricted by other countries' laws. For general information see "Cop... More

General Wood transferring Cuba's government and delivering President Roosevelt's letter to President Palma, May 20, 1902, Palace, Havana

General Wood transferring Cuba's government and delivering President R...

Stereograph shows Gov. Leonard Wood handing letter to President Tomás Estrada y Palma in a crowded room. H19900 U.S. Copyright Office. Copyright by Underwood & Underwood. Title from item.

Wood, Hon. Fernando of New York
[Map of Washington D.C. showing wood, concrete, and stone street pavements].

[Map of Washington D.C. showing wood, concrete, and stone street pavem...

Also shows block and ward numbers. Hand col. to show street paving types for 1872 and 1873. At head of legend: Nov. 1st 18[missing] pavements. Base map title: Map of the city of Washington in the District of Co... More

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